SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program


This page contains a selection of publications that the SCICEX SAC thought especially relevant to program goals. This list is not comprehensive and was last updated August 2021. If you have a publication that you would like added to this list, please contact Ann Windnagel, NSIDC SCICEX data manager.

General SCICEX


Windnagel, A. and J. Richter-Menge. 2015. Teaching an Old Submarine Data Collection Program New Tricks. Witness the Arctic 2015(2).

Windnagel, A. 2015. A Labor of Love Brings Together Civilian Scientists and the U.S. Navy. Witness the Arctic 2015(2).


Windnagel, A. and F. Fetterer. Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Draft, Bathymetry, and Water Properties from Nuclear-Powered Submarines. Poster at 2014 AGU, San Fransico, CA.


Sambrotto, R. N., J. Richter-Menge, T. Boyd. 2013. Ocean and Ice Observations from Submarines in the Arctic. A white paper for the Arctic Observing Summit 2013, 30 April – 2 May, Vancouver, Canada. International Study of Arctic Change (ISAC), University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Ak.


Smethie, B., R. Sambrotto, T. Boyd, J. Richter-Menge, and J.E. Corbett. Collection of Arctic Ocean Data from US Navy Submarines on the New SCICEX Program. AGU 2011Cryosphere Poster Session, San Francisco, CA. C41D - 0439.


Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC). 2007. Arctic Observing Network: Toward a US Contribution to Pan- Arctic Observing. Arctic Research of the United States, vol. 21. (accessed Nov. 23, 2011).


Edwards, M.H. and B.J. Coakley. 2003. SCICEX Investigations of the Arctic Ocean System. Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry 63(4): 281-328.

1999 and Earlier

Gossett, J. 1996. Arctic Research Using Nuclear Submarines. Sea Technology March 1996.

Langseth, M., DeLaca, T., Newton, G.B., et al. 1994. SCICEX-93 Arctic Cruise of the U.S. Navy Nuclear Submarine USS PARGO. MTS Journal 27(4): 4-12.

Newton, G.B. 1995. The Nuclear Submarine as an Ocean Research Platform. MTS Journal 28(4): 47-52.

Newton, G.B. and Kauderer B.M. 1994. White Submarine Development Concept, a report prepared for the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, New London, CT, June 1994.

Newton, G.B. 1993. Conversion of a Russian DELTA-III Submarine for Arctic Research.... Submarine Review, Naval Submarine League, Annandale, VA, April 1993: 67-74.

Newton, G.B. 1992. The Time for the Arctic Science Submarine is Now. Naval Institute Proceedings, U.S. Naval Institute, Annapolis, MD, December 1992: 102-105.

Newton, G.B. 1991. Submarine Arctic Operations-Requirements, Challenges, Progress. Submarine Review, Naval Submarine League, Annandale, VA, October 1991: 99-105.

Pyle, T. E., M. Ledbetter, et al. 1997. Arctic Ocean Science. Sea Teachnology 38: 10-15.

Rothrock, D., W. Maslowski, D. Chayes, G. Flato, J. Grebmeier, R. Jackson, R. Sambrotto, W. Smethie, W. Sternberger, J. Swift, J. Tarduno, and A. Thorndike. 1999. Arctic Ocean Science from Submarines: A Report Based on the SCICEX 2000 Workshop. Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 27 pp.


Baker, E. T., H. N. Edmonds, P. J. Michael, W. Bach, H. J. B. Dick, J. E. Snow, S. L. Walker, N. R. Banerjee, and C. H. Langmuir. 2004. Hydrothermal venting in magma deserts: The ultraslowspreading Gakkel and Southwest Indian Ridges. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 5, Q08002, doi:10.1029/2004GC000712.

Chayes, D., M. Edwards, B. Coakley, R. Anderson. 2000. Seafloor Characterization And Mapping Pods (SCAMP): Recent results from SCICEX. Abstracts from the Arctic Forum: 39.

Chayes, D., et al. 1998. Enhanced Geophysical Instrumenation for SCICEX: the Seafloor Characterization and Mapping Pods (SCAMP). The Arctic Forum. Washington DC: Arctic Research Consortium of the US.

Chayes, D. N., et al. 1998. Swath Mapping the Arctic Ocean from US Navy submarines; installation and performance analysis of SCAMP operations during SCICEX 1998. EOS Transactions, AGU 79(F854).

Chayes, D.N., et al. 1997. SCAMP: A submarine-mounted geophysical survey system for use under the Arctic ice. Oceans' 97: 1-17.

Chayes, D.N., et al. 1996. SCAMP: An Enhanced Geophysical Mapping System for Arctic Submarine Cruises. EOS Transactions, AGU.

Coakley, B. J. and J. R. Cochran. 1998. Gravity Evidence of Very Thin Crust at the Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Ocean). EPSL 162: p. 81-95.

Dick, H. J. B., J. Lin, and H. Schouten. 2003. An Ultraslow Spreading Class of Ocean Ridge. Nature 426: 405–412.

Edmonds, H. N., P. J. Michael, E. T. Baker, D. P. Connelly, J. E. Snow, C. H. Langmuir, H. J. B. Dick, R. Mühe, C. R. German, and D. W. Graham. 2003. Discovery of Abundant Hydrothermal Venting on the Ultraslow-spreading Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean. Nature 421: 252–256.

Edwards, M. H., G. J. Kurras, M. Tolstoy, D. R. Bohnenstiehl, B. J. Coakley, and J. R. Cochran. 2001. Evidence of Recent Volcanic Activity on the Ultra-slow Spreading Gakkel Ridge. Nature 409: 808–812.

Jakobsson, M., R. Macnab, L. Mayer, R. Anderson, M. Edwards, J. Hatzky, H. W. Schenke, and P. Johnson. 2008. An Improved Bathymetric Portrayal of the Arctic Ocean: Implications for Ocean Modeling and Geological, Geophysical and Oceanographic Analyses. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L07602, doi:10.1029/2008GL033520.

Jakobsson, M., et al. 2000. New Grid of Arctic Bathymetry Aids Scientists and Mapmakers. EOS Trans. Amer. Union Geophys 81(9).

Kristoffersen, Y., J. K. Hall, K. Hunkins, J. Ardai, B. J. Coakley, J. R. Hopper, and the Healy 2005 Seismic Team. 2009. Extensive Local Seabed Disturbance, Erosion and Mass Wasting on Alpha Ridge, Central Arctic Ocean: Possible Evidence for an Extraterrestrial Impact? Norwegian Journal of Geology 88: 313–320.

Kristoffersen, Y., B. Coakley, W. Jokat, M. Edwards, H. Brekke, and J. Gjengedal. 2004. Seabed Erosion on the Lomonosov Ridge, Central Arctic Ocean: A Tale of Deep Draft Icebergs in the Eurasia Basin and the Influence of Atlantic Water Inflow on Iceberg Motion? Paleoceanography 19, PA3006, doi:10.1029/2003PA000985.

Michael, P. J., C. H. Langmuir, H. J. B. Dick, J. E. Snow, S. L. Goldstein, D. W. Graham, K. Lehnert, G. Kurras, W. Jokat, R. Mühe, and H. N. Edmonds. 2003. Magmatic and Amagmatic Seafloor Generation at the Ultraslow-spreading Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean. Nature 423: 956–961.

Müller, C. and W. Jokat. 2000. Seismic Evidence for Volcanic Activity Discovered in Central Arctic. Eos Transactions, American Geophysical Union 81:265–269.

Polyak, L., J. Bischof, J. D. Ortiz, D. A. Darby, J. E. T. Channell, C. Xuan, D. S. Kaufman, R. Løvlie, D. Schneider, R. Adler, and E. Council. 2009. Late Quaternary stratigraphy and sedimentation patterns in the western Arctic Ocean. Global and Planetary Change 68: 5–17.

Polyak, L., M.H. Edwards, B.J. Coakley, and M. Jakobsson. 2001. Existence of Arctic ice shelves during the Pleistocene inferred from deep-sea glaciogenic bedforms. Nature 410:453–457.

Schlindwein, V., C. Müller, and W. Jokat. 2005. Seismoacoustic Evidence for Volcanic Activity on the Ultraslow-spreading Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L18306, doi:10.1029/2005GL023767.

Snow, J. E., and H. N. Edmonds. 2007. Ultraslow-spreading Ridges: Rapid Paradigm Changes. Oceanography 20(1): 90–101.

Sohn, R. A., C. Willis, S. Humphris, T. M. Shank, H. Singh, H. N. Edmonds, C. Kunz, U. Hedman, E. Helmke, M. Jakuba, et al. 2008. Explosive Volcanism on the Ultraslow-spreading Gakkel Ridge, Arctic Ocean. Nature 453: 1,236–1,238.

Tolstoy, M., D. R. Bohnenstiehl, M. H. Edwards, and G. J. Kurras. 2001. Seismic Character of Volcanic Activity at the Ultraslow-spreading Gakkel Ridge. Geology 29: 1,139–1,142.

Ocean Water Properties


Boyd, T. 2012. ICEX-2011 XCTD Test: March - April 2011. Scottish Association for Marine Science Internal Report No 275. Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Scotland.

Boyd, T. J., M. Steele, R. D. Muench, and J. T. Gunn. 2002. Partial Recovery of the Arctic Ocean Halocline. Geophysical Research Letters 29(14), 1657, doi:10.1029/2001GL014047.

Kikuchi, T., J. Inoue, and J. H. Morison. 2005. Temperature Difference across the Lomonosov Ridge: Implications for the Atlantic Water Circulation in the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L20604, doi:10.1029/2005GL023982.

Kikuchi, T., K. Hatakeyama, and J. H. Morison. 2004. Distribution of Convective Lower Halocline Water in the Eastern Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, C12030, doi:10.1029/20003JC002223.

Morison, J., Kwok, R., Dickinson, S., Andersen, R., Peralta-Ferriz, C., Morison, D., Rigor, I., Dewey, S., and Guthrie, J. (2021). The Cyclonic Mode of Arctic Ocean CirculationJournal of Physical Oceanography51(4), 1053-1075.

Morison, J. H., M. Steele, and R. Andersen. 1998. Hydrography of the Upper Arctic Ocean Measured During the Cruise of the Nuclear Submarine USS Pargo. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 45(1): 15-38

Muench, R. D., J. T. Gunn, T. E. Whitledge, P. Schlosser, and W. Smethie. 2000. An Arctic Ocean Cold Core Eddy. Journal of Geophysical Research 105: 23,997–24,006.

Smethie, W. M., P. Schlosser, G. Bonisch, and T. S. Hopkins. 2000. Renewal and Circulation of Intermediate Waters in the Canadian Basin Observed on the SCICEX 96 Cruise. Journal of Geophysical Research 105: 1,105–1,121.

Smith, J. N., K. M. Ellis, and T. Boyd. 1999. Circulation Features in the Central Arctic Ocean Revealed by Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Rracers from Scientific Ice Expeditions 1995 and 1996. Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 29,663–29,677.

Steele, M., J. Morison, W. Ermold, I. Rigor, and M. Ortmeyer. 2004. Circulation of Summer Pacific Halocline Water in the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, C02027, doi:10.1029/2003JC002009.

Steele, M., and T. Boyd. 1998. Retreat of the Cold Halocline Layer in the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 103: 10,491–10,435.

Woodgate, R. A., K. Aagaard, J. H. Swift, W. M. Smethie Jr., and K. K. Falkner. 2007. Atlantic Water circulation over the Mendeleyev Ridge and Chukchi Borderland from Thermohaline Intrusions and Water Mass Properties. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, C02005, doi:10.1029/2005JC003416.

Zhang, J., and M. Steele. 2007. Effect of Vertical Mixing on the Atlantic Water Layer Circulation in the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, C04S04, doi:10.1029/2006JC003732.


Anderson, L. G., and S. Kaltin. 2001. Carbon Fluxes in the Arctic Ocean—Potential Impact by Climate Change. Polar Research 20: 225–232.

Doney, S. C., V. J. Fabry, R. A. Feely, and J. A. Kleypas. 2009. Ocean Acidification: The Other CO2 problem. Annual Review of Marine Science 1: 169–192.

Doney, S. C. 2006. The Dangers of Ocean Acidification. Scientific American 294: 58–65.

Guay, C. K., G. P. Klinkhammer, K. K. Falkner, R. Benner, P. G. Coble, T. E. Whitledge, B. Black, F. J. Bussell, and T. A. Wagner. 1999. High-resolution Measurements of Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Arctic Ocean by in situ Fiber-optic Spectrometry. Geophysical Research Letters 26: 1,007–1,010.

Guay, C. and K. K. Falkner. 1998. A Survey of Dissolved Barium in the Estuaries of Major Arctic Rivers and Adjacent Seas. Continental Shelf Research 18(8): 859-882 .

Guay, C. and K. K. Falkner. 1997. Barium as a Tracer of Arctic Halocline and River Waters. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 44(8): 1543-1569.

Gunn, J. T., and R. D. Muench. 2001. Observed Changes in Arctic Ocean Temperature Structure over the Past Half Decade. Geophysical Research Letters 28: 1,035–1,038.

Hester, K. C., E. T. Pelzer, W. J. Kirkwood, and P. G. Brewer. 2008. Unanticipated Consequences of Ocean Acidification: A Noisier Ocean at Lower pH. Geophysical Research Letters 35, doi:10.1029/2008GL034913.

Kadko, D. and K. Aagaard. 2009. Glimpses of Arctic Ocean Shelfbasin Interaction from Submarine-borne Radium Sampling. Deep Sea Research Part I 56: 32–40.

Karcher, M.L., R. Gerdes, F. Kauker, and C. Koeberle. 2003. Arctic warming: Evolution and Spreading of the 1990s Warm Event in the Nordic Sea and the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(C2), 3034, doi:10.1029/2001JC001265.

Martin, Seelye, Esther A. Munoz, 1997: Properties of the Arctic 2-Meter Air Temperature Field for 1979 to the Present Derived from a New Gridded Dataset. J. Climate 10(6): 1428–1440.

Maslowski, W., J. L. Clement, and J. Jakacki. 2007. Toward Prediction of Environmental Arctic Change. Computing in Science and Engineering 9: 29–34.

Mizuno, K. and T. Watanabe. 1998. Preliminary Results of in situ CTD/CTD Comparison Test. Journal of Oceanography 54: 373–380.

Muench, R. D., J. T. Gunn, and E. S. Johnson. 1998. Submarine-based Current Measurements in the Arctic Ocean: Some Early Results. 23rd General Assembly of the European Geophysical Society. 1998: Annales Geophysicae.

Orr, J. C., V. J. Fabry, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, A. Gnanadesikan, N. Gruber, A. Ishida, F. Joos, et al. 2005. Anthropogenic Ocean Acidification over the Twenty-first Century and its Impact on Calcifying Organisms. Nature 437: 681–686.

Polyakov, I. V., G. V. Aleekseev, L. A. Timokhov, V. S. Bhatt, R. L. Colony, H. L. Simmons, D. Walsh, J. E. Walsh, and V. F. Zakharov. 2004. Variability of Intermediate Atlantic Water of the Arctic Ocean over the Last 100 Years. Journal of Climate 17: 4,485–4,496.

Salmon, D. K. and C. P. McRoy. 1994. Nutrient-based Tracers in the Western Arctic: A New Lower Halocline Water Defined. The Polar Oceans and their Role in Shaping the Global Environment. O. M. Johannessen, R. D. Muench, and J. E. Overland , Editors. Amer. Geophys. Union, Geophys. Mono. 85:47-61.

Shimada, K., F. McLaughlin, E. Carmack, A. Proshutinsky, S. Nishino, and M. Itoh. 2004. Penetration of the 1990s Warm Temperature Anomaly of Atlantic Water in the Canada Basin. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L20301, doi:10.1029/2004GL020860.

Smethie, W., Jr., P. Schlosser, G. Bönisch, and T. Hopkins. 2000. Renewal and Circulation of Intermediate Waters in the Canadian Basin Observed on the SCICEX 96 Cruise. J. Geophys. Res. 105(C1): 1105-1121.

Smith, J. N., K. M. Ellis, and T. Boyd. 1999. Circulation Features in the Central Arctic Ocean Revealed by Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Tracers from Scientific Ice Expeditions 1995 and 1996. J. Geophys. Res. 104(C12): 29,663–29,677. doi:10.1029/1999JC900244.

Smith, J. N., K. M. Ellis and T. Boyd. 1998. Circulation Features in the Western Arctic Ocean Revealed by Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Tracers 129I and 137Cs Measured using US Navy Nuclear Submarines. Deep-Sea Research.

Smith, J. N., K. M. Ellis, and L. R. Kilius. 1998. 129I and 137Cs Tracer Measurements in the Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research 1(45(6)): 959-984.

Steele, M. and T. Boyd. 1998. Retreat of the Cold Halocline Layer in the Arctic Ocean. J. Geophysical Res. 103(C5): 10419-10435.

Steinacher, M., F. Joos, T. L. Forlicher, G. K. Plattner, and S. C. Doney. 2008. Imminent Ocean Acidification Projected with the NAR Global Coupled Carbon Cycle-climate Model. Biogeosciences Discussions 5: 4,353–4,393.

Swift, J. H., E. P. Jones, K. Aagaard, E. C. Carmack, M. Hingston, R. W. Macdonald, F. A. McLaughlin, and R. G. Perkin. 1997. Waters of the Makarov and Canada Basins. Deep-Sea Research Part II 44: 1,503–1,529.

Tanhua, T., E. P. Jones, E. Jeansson, S. Jutterstrom, W. M. Smethie, Jr., D. W. R. Wallace, and L. G. Anderson. 2009. Ventilation of the Arctic Ocean: Mean Ages and Inventories of Anthropogenic CO2 and CFC-11. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, C01002, doi:10.1029/2008JC004868.

Wheeler, P. A., J. M. Watkins, and R. L. Hansing. 1997. Nutrients, Organic Carbon, and Organic Nitrogen in the Upper Water Column of the Arctic Ocean: Implications for Sources of Dissolved Organic Carbon. Deep-Sea Research Part II 44:1,571–1,592.

Wheeler P. A., M. Gosselin, E. Sherr, D. Thibault, D. L. Kirchman, R. Benner, and T. E. Whitledge. 1996. Active Recycling of Organic Carbon in the Central Arctic Ocean. Nature 380: 697–699.


Bano, N., S. Ruffin, B. Ransom, and J. T. Hollibaugh. 2004. Phylogenetic Composition of Arctic Ocean Archaeal Assemblages and Comparison with Antarctic Assemblages. Applied Environmental Microbiology 70:781–789.

Bano, N., and J. T. Hollibaugh. 2002. Phylogenetic Composition of Bacterioplankton Assemblages from the Arctic Ocean. Applied Environmental Microbiology 68:505–518.

Bates, N. R., D. A. Hansell, S. B. Moran, and L. A. Codispoti. 2005. Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Particulate Organic Matter (POM) in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Deep Sea Research Part II 52(24–26): 3,324–3,343.

Bluhm, B. A., and R. Gradinger. 2008. Regional Variability in Food Availability for Arctic Marine Mammals. Ecological Applications 18(2):S77–S96.

Brodeur, R. D., C. E. Mills, J .E. Overland, G. E. Walters, and J. D. Schumacher. 1999. Evidence for a Substantial Increase in Gelatinous Zooplankton in the Bering Sea, with Possible Links to Climate Change. Fisheries Oceanography 8(4): 296–306.

Cota G. F., L. R. Pomeroy, W. G. Harrison, E. P. Jones, F. Peters, W. M. Sheldon, and T. R. Weingartner. 1996. Nutrients, Primary Production and Microbial Heterotrophy in the Southeastern Chukchi Sea: Arctic Summer Nutrient Depletion and Heterotrophy. Marine Ecology Progress Series 135: 247–258.

DeLong, E. F. 2009. The Microbial Ocean from Genomes to Biomes. Nature 459(7244): 200–206.

Elifantz, H., A. I. Dittel, M. T. Cottrell, and D. L. Kirchman. 2007. Dissolved Organic Matter Assimilation by Heterotrophic Bacterial Groups in the Western Arctic Ocean. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 50: 39–49.

Falkowski, P.G., T. Fenchel, and E. F. Delong. 2008. The Microbial Engines that Drive Earth's Biogeochemical Cycles. Science 320(5879): 1034–1039.

Ferrari, V. C. and J. T. Hollibaugh. 1999. Distribution of Microbial Assemblages in the Central Arctic Ocean Basin Studied by PCR/DGGE: Analysis of a Large Data Set. Hydrobiologia 401: 55-68.

Gross, L. 2007 Untapped Bounty: Sampling the Seas to Survey Microbial Biodiversity. PLoS Biol. 5(3):e85. doi:10.1371/journal. pbio.0050085.

Guay, C.K., et al. 1998. In-situ Organic Matter Fluorescence Recorded during SCICEX 1996. Ocean Sciences Meeting 1998. San Diego, CA: EOS.

Guéguen, C., L. Guo, and N. Tanaka. 2005. Distributions and Characteristics of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter in the Western Arctic Ocean. Continental Shelf Research 25(10): 1,195–1,207.

Hargrave, B. T. 1999. Scavenging Amphipods as Sentinels to Monitor Persistent Organic Contaminants in the Arctic Ocean Food-web. Science of the Total Environment 230: 83.

Hollibaugh, J. T., V. C. Ferrari, and C. Oreggo. Bacterioplankton Distributions and Community Metabolic Characteristics in the Arctic Ocean during March and April of 1996: SCICEX 95. ASLO/AGU Ocean Sciences Meeting, 1996. San Diego, CA.

Kalanetra, K. M., N. Bano, and J. T. Hollibaugh. 2009. Ammoniaoxidizing Archaea in the Arctic Ocean and Antarctic Coastal Waters. Environmental Microbiology 11(9): 2,434–2,445. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.01974.x.

Kirchman, D. L., R. R. Malmstrom, and M. T. Cottrell. 2005. Control of Bacterial Growth by Temperature and Organic Matter in the Western Arctic. Deep Sea Research Part II 52(24–26): 3,386–3,395.

Lovejoy, C., R. Massana, and C. Pedrós-Alió. 2006. Diversity and Distribution of Marine Microbial Eukaryotes in the Arctic Ocean and Adjacent Seas. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72(5): 3,085–3,095.

Pabi, S., G. L. van Dijken, and K. R. Arrigo. 2008. Primary Production in the Arctic Ocean, 1998–2006. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, C08005, doi:10.1029/2007JC004578.

Rich J., M. Gosselin, E. Sherr, B. Sherr, and D.L. Kirchman. 1997. High Bacterial Production, Uptake and Concentrations of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Central Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research Part II 44(8): 1,645–1,663.

Smetacek, V., and S. Nicol. 2005. Polar Ocean Ecosystems in a Changing World. Nature 437(7057): 362.

Sea Ice

Bourke, R.H., and A.S. McLaren. 1992. Contour mapping of Arctic Basin ice draft and roughness parameters. Journal of Geophysical Research 97(C11):17,715–17,728.

Bourke, R.H., and R.P. Garrett. 1987. Sea ice thickness distribution in the Arctic Ocean. Cold Regions Science and Technology 13:259–280.

Giles, K. A., S. W. Laxon, and A. L. Ridout. 2008. Circumpolar Thinning of Arctic Sea Ice Following the 2007 Record Ice Extent Minimum. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L22502, doi:10.1029/2008GL035710.

Hutchings, J., C. Geiger, A. Roberts, J. Richter-Menge, M. Doble, R. Forsberg, K. Giles, C. Haas, S. Hendricks, C. Khambhamettu, et al.. 2008. Role of Ice Dynamics in the Sea Ice Mass Balance. Eos Transactions, American Geophysical Union 89(50):515. doi:10.1029/2008EO500003.

Kwok, R. and G. F. Cunningham. 2015. Variability of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume from CryoSat-2. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society A 373(2045). doi: 10.1098/rsta.2014.0157.

Kwok, R., and D. A. Rothrock. 2009. Decline in Arctic Sea Ice Thickness from Submarine and ICESat Records: 1958–2008. Geophysical Research Letters 36, L15501, doi:10.1029/ 2009GL039035.

Lindsay, R. W. and A. J. Schweiger. 2015. Arctic sea ice thickness loss determined using subsurface, aircraft, and satellite observations. The Cryosphere 9: 269-83. doi:10.5194/tc-9-269-2015.

Lindsay, R. W., J. Zhang, A. J. Schweiger, M. A. Steele, and H. Stern. 2009. Arctic Sea Ice Retreat in 2007 Follows Thinning Trend. Journal of Climate 22:165–176. doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2521.1.

McLaren, A. S., R. G. Barry, and R. H. Bourke. 1990. Could Arctic Ice Be Thinning? Nature 345(6278): 762.

Melling H., D. A. Riedel, and Z. Gedalof. 2005. Trends in the Draft and Extent of Seasonal Pack Ice, Canadian Beaufort Sea. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L24501, doi:10.1029/2005GL024483.

Nghiem, S. V., I. G. Rigor, D. K. Perovich, P. Clemente-Colon, J. W. Weatherly, and G. Neumann. 2007. Rapid Reduction of Arctic Perennial Sea Ice. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L19504, doi:10.1029/2007GL031138.

Pfirman, S., W. F. Haxby, R. Colony, and I. Rigor. 2004. Variability in Arctic Sea Ice Drift. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L16402, doi:10:1029/2004GL020063.

Richter-Menge, J. A., D. K. Perovich, B. C. Elder, K. Claffey, I. Rigor, and M. Ortmeyer. 2006. Ice Mass Balance Buoys: A Tool for Measuring and Attributing Changes in the Thickness of the Arctic Sea Ice Cover. Annals of Glaciology 44: 205–210.

Rigor, I., and J. M. Wallace. 2004. Variations in the Age of Arctic Sea Ice and Summer Sea Ice Extent. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L09401, doi:10.1029/2004GL019492.

Rothrock, D.A., and M. Wensnahan. 2007. The Accuracy of Sea-ice Drafts Measured from U.S. Navy Submarines. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 24: 1,936-1,949. doi:10.1175/JTECH2097.1.

Rothrock, D. A., D. B. Percival, and M. Wensnahan. 2008. The Decline in Arctic Sea-ice Thickness: Separating the Spatial, Annual, and Interannual Variability in a Quarter Century of Submarine Data. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, C05003, doi:1029/2007JC004252.

Rothrock, D. A., and J. Zhang. 2005. Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Volume: What Explains its Recent Depletion? Journal of Geophysical Research 110, C01002, doi:10.1029/2004JC002282.

Rothrock, D. A., Y. Yu, and G. A. Maykut. 1999. Thinning of the Arctic Sea-ice Cover. Geophysical Research Letters 26: 3,469–3,472.

Shimada, K., T. Kamoshida, M. Itoh, S. Nishino, E. Carmack, F. McLaughlin, S. Zimmermann, and A. Proshutinsky. 2006. Pacific Ocean Inflow: Influence on Catastrophic Reduction of Sea Ice Cover in the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L08605, doi:10.1029/2005GL025624.

Shy, T. L., and J. E. Walsh. 1996. North Pole ice thickness and association with ice motion history 1977–1992. Geophysical Research Letters 23(21):2,975–2,978, doi:10.1029/96GL02823.

Tucker, W. B., J. W. Weatherly, D. T. Eppler, L. D. Farmer, and D. L. Bentley. 2001. Evidence for Rapid Thinning of Sea Ice in the Western Arctic Ocean at the End of the 1980s. Geophysical Research Letters 28: 2,851–2,854.

Wadhams, P. and N. R. Davis. 2000. Further Evidence of Ice Thinning in the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 27(24): 3,973-3,975.

Wadhams, P. 1990. Evidence for thinning of the Arctic ice cover north of Greenland. Nature 345:795–797.

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