push moraine

moraine built out ahead of an advancing glacier.
The Columbia Glacier surged (advanced rapidly) earlier this century, part of it flowing into a forest. The push moraine in this photograph from 1914 shows Columbia Glacier literally pushing up trees and dirt as it advanced. (Photo courtesy of D.K. Handy, archived at the World Data Center for...

pressure melting

melting that occurs in ice at temperatures colder than normal melting temperature because of added pressure.


a nearly vertical channel in ice that is formed by flowing water; usually found after a relatively flat section of glacier in a region of transverse crevasses; also called a moulin.

polar ice cap

a high-latitude region covered in ice; not a true ice cap, which are less than 50,000 square kilometers (12.4 million acres) and are always over land; more like an ice sheet; also called polar ice sheet.

polar glacier

a glacier entirely below freezing, except possibly for a thin layer of melt near the surface during summer or near the bed; polar glaciers are found only in polar regions of the globe or at high altitudes.

piedmont glacier

large ice lobe spread out over surrounding terrain, associated with the terminus of a large mountain valley glacier.
The massive lobe of Malaspina Glacier in Alaska is clearly visible in this photograph taken from a Space Shuttle flight in 1989. Agassiz Glacier is the smaller glacier to the left. The Malaspina Glacier is one of the most famous examples of this type of glacier, and is the largest piedmont...

periglacial processes

processes associated with frost action in cold, nonglacial environments.

periglacial phenomena

landforms and soil characteristics produced by periglacial processes.


the conditions, processes and landforms associated with cold, nonglacial environments.


the extreme relief of ablation hollows found most often at high altitudes in the tropics; the resulting spikes of snow resemble repentant souls.


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