When scientists talk about the cryosphere, they mean the places on Earth where water is in its solid form, frozen into ice or snow. Read more ...
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frozen ground or permafrost
a depression of the permafrost table created by naturally induced thawing.
A type of Pleistocene-age (formed 1.8 million to 10,000 years before present) permafrost that contains a significant amount of organic material with ice content of 5090% by volume. Thawing yedoma is a significant source of atmospheric methane.
A yedoma in Russia shows the thick layer of ice and carbon material exposed along this body of water. --Credit: Vladimir Romanovsky