Further Reading on Frozen Ground

Where can I find more information about permafrost?

Educational sources on frozen ground and permafrost

Educational sources on Arctic ecosystems

Permafrost research

Climate change and frozen ground

  • Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. A comprehensive report on how climate change is affecting the Arctic.
  • Observations: Changes in Snow, Ice, and Frozen Ground (PDF, 8.38MB): Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. This section of the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report summarizes the latest scientific understanding of changes in snow, ice, and frozen ground as indicators of climate change.
  • Permafrost and the Changing Arctic: Earth Science System Educational Alliance (ESSEA). Study how permafrost is changing as climate change affects the Arctic.

Permafrost photos

News features about frozen ground

  • Frozen Soils and the Climate System: NASA Earth Observatory. Read about how scientists study interactions between frozen soils and the climate system.
  • Melting Beneath Our Feet: Arctic Science Journeys Radio. Doug Schneider, of the Alaska SeaGrant Program, talks with deputy executive director of the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, Lawson Brigham, about the importance of permafrost in Alaska.
  • Scientist Measures an Overlooked Greenhouse Gas: National Public Radio's Melissa Block interviews Katy Walters, a permafrost scientist at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.
  • Soil freezing gets a warm reception here: Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce. Engineer James Miller writes about a soil-freezing method that aids in construction in Washington State.
Permafrost in the United States

Figure 1. Most frozen ground in the United States is seasonally frozen ground. The shaded areas on the map, between the dotted lines, mark the average depth that the soil freezes to in the winter.
Credit: Neil Davis


Where can I find information about frozen ground and frost depth in my area of the world?

The map on the right shows the average frost depth in the contiguous United States. For detailed information about frost depth in your area, contact your local government.

I have a question about permafrost that wasn't answered on this site. Who can I contact for more information?

For more information or questions for NSIDC scientists, please contact NSIDC User Services at nsidc@nsidc.org or +1 303.492.6199.