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Data Set ID:
G02141

Meteorological Data from the Russian Arctic, 1961-2000, Version 1

This data set contains monthly means of meteorological observation data from Russian stations from 1961-2000 (for most stations). The Russian station observations were provided by Vladimir Radionov, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), St. Petersburg, and include 2-meter air temperature, sea level pressure, total and low cloud amount, precipitation, and relative humidity.

Geographic Coverage

Parameter(s):
  • Atmospheric Temperature > Air Temperature
  • Clouds > Cloud Amount/Frequency
  • Atmospheric Water Vapor > Humidity
  • Precipitation > Precipitation Amount
  • Atmospheric Pressure > Sea Level Pressure
Spatial Coverage:
  • N: 78.06667, S: 59.96667, E: 179.1, W: 14.25

Spatial Resolution:
  • Varies
Temporal Coverage:
  • 1 January 1961 to 31 December 2000
Temporal Resolution: 3 hour to 6 hour
Data Format(s):
  • ASCII Text
Platform(s) GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS
Sensor(s): BAROMETERS, DRY BULB THERMOMETERS, HYGROMETERS, THERMOMETERS, WET BULB THERMOMETERS
Version: V1
Data Contributor(s): Vladimir Radionov, Florence Fetterer
Data Citation

As a condition of using these data, you must cite the use of this data set using the following citation. For more information, see our Use and Copyright Web page.

National Snow and Ice Data Center. Edited by V. F. Radionov and F. Fetterer. 2003. Meteorological Data from the Russian Arctic, 1961-2000, Version 1. [Indicate subset used]. Boulder, Colorado USA. NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N56H4FB3. [Date Accessed].

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Detailed Data Description

Station List
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Format

The station data from AARI have been reformatted to "uniformat." Uniformat files are ASCII files with columns for parameters described in the Table 1. Uniformat was developed to combine the synoptic and monthly meteorological data from the several sources on the Arctic Meteorology and Climate Atlas (Arctic Climatology Project, 2000) into a single format. The single format makes it easier to read and manipulate data from different sources.

Table 1. Uniformat File Description. (Note that only parameters 1,2,3,7,8,9,10,13,14,15, and 19 have data, other fields are filled with a value indicating missing. These fields apply to data on the Arctic Meteorology and Climate Atlas).
Parameter Number Parameter Name Columns Value for Missing Comments
1 WMO station number 0-4 99999
2 Year 5-9 Not Applicable
3 Month 10-12 Not Applicable
4 Day 13-15 -1 (-1 means monthly, not synoptic data)
5 Time 16-20 -1 (-1 means monthly, not synoptic data)
6 Position interpolation flag 21-22 9

Code to indicate position characteristic:

9: Missing. Used if either lat. or lon. is missing

1: Default. Means observed, fixed position

2: Linearly interpolated. Used only for North Pole drifting stations.

3: Rounded to nearest degree. Used for some western drifting station and Ice Patrol ship data.

4: Monthly mean position. Used only for monthly mean data from NP stations.

7 Latitude, decimal degrees North 23-28 99.99 This position is the position provided by AARI, not that provided for the station by WMO. Differences may occur.
8 Longitude, decimal degrees East 29-36 999.99 (0 - 360); This position is the position provided by AARI, not that provided for the station by WMO. Differences may occur.
9 Air temperature (°C) 37-43 999.99
10 Sea level pressure (mbar) 44-50 9999.9
11 Wind direction (deg.) 51-56 999.9
12 Wind speed (m/s) 57-62 999.9
13 Total cloud amount (tenths) 63-67 99.9 Visual estimates. Note that Russian drifting stations may have "11," meaning "10, with gaps."
14 Low cloud amount (tenths) 68-72 99.9 Visual estimates. Note that Russian drifting stations may have "11", meaning "10, with gaps."
15 Relative humidity (percent) 73-78 999.9
16 Dew point (°C) 79-85 999.99
17 Wet bulb temperature (°C) 86-92 999.99
18 Vapor pressure (mbar) 93-99 9999.9
19 Precipitation (millimeters) 100-106 -1.00 "Trace" precipitation is coded in uniformat files as 0.1 mm.
20 Soil or ice surface temperature (°C) 107-113 999.99
21 Sea surface temperature (°C) 114-120 999.99
22 Station name 121- Text field of varying length.
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File Naming Convention

The naming convention for the uniformat data files is uni.[station_name].[station_id].dat.

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File Size

The data files range between 60 KB and 65 KB. All data files combined total 3.3 MB.

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Spatial Coverage

Figure 1 and Table 2 and 3 describe the locations of the stations

Station Locations
Figure 1. Station Locations

Table 2. Station Location and Date Information
Name WMO station number Period for which data are available Latitude degrees and minutes North Longitude degrees and minutes East (0-360) Elevation above sea level (m) Elevation barometers level (m)
1. Barentsburg 20107 1961-1994 78 04 14 15 70 64.9
2. Tambey 20864 1961-2000 71 30 71 50 8 10.0
3. Gyda 20963 1961-1998 70 53 78 28 8 8.0
4. Seyakha 20967 1961-2000 70 13 72 36 16 16.0
5. Nijneynsk 21835 1961-1998 71 29 136 42 2 3.2
6. Dzalinda 21908 1961-2000 70 08 113 58 61 62.8
7. Kjusjur 21921 1961-2000 70 41 127 24 39 38.1
8. Cokurdah 21946 1961-2000 70 37 147 53 44 61.0
9. Kanin Nos 22165 1961-2000 68 39 43 18 48 48.8
10. Krasnoscel'e 22235 1961-2000 67 22 37 02 155 157.2
11. Sojna 22271 1961-2000 67 53 44 08 16 19.0
12. Indiga 22292 1961-2000 70 37 147 53 44 61.0
13. Gridino 22422 1961-2000 65 54 34 46 9 9.0
14. Mezen' 22471 1961-2000 65 52 44 13 14 15.9
15. Turcasovo 22648 1961-2000 63 06 39 15 36 33.3
16. Sura 22676 1961-2000 63 35 45 38 65 65.0
17. Kargopol' 22845 1961-2000 61 30 38 56 121 122.8
18. Vozega 22954 1961-2000 60 28 40 12 178 179.9
19. Belyy Nos 23024 1961-2000 69 39 60 25 6 5.9
20. Ust'-Kara 23029 1961-2000 69 15 64 56 5 3.8
21. Antipayuta 23058 1961-2000 69 05 76 51 2 3.4
22. Dudinka 23074 1961-2000 69 24 86 10 16 19.4
23. Novyy Port 23242 1961-2000 67 42 72 54 11 12.2
24. Tazovskoe 23256 1961-2000 67 28 78 44 8 8.1
25. Igarka 23274 1961-2000 67 28 86 34 20 26.7
26. Salekhard 23330 1961-2000 66 32 66 32 14 15.7
27. Ra-Iz 23331 1961-1997 66 57 65 28 895 889.8
28. Yar-Sale 23341 1961-1990 66 50 70 49 8 10.0
29. Agata 23383 1961-2000 66 53 93 28 277 278.3
30. Ust'-Cil'Ma 23405 1961-2000 65 27 52 16 70 68.2
31. Pechora 23418 1961-2000 65 07 57 06 56 61.5
32. Muzi 23426 1961-2000 65 23 64 43 18 18.1
33. Tarko-Sale 23552 1961-2000 64 55 77 49 26 30.2
34. Sosva 23625 1961-2000 63 39 61 59 27 28.7
35. Verhne-Imbatskoe 23678 1961-2000 63 09 87 57 40 40.0
36. Jarcevo 23987 1961-2000 60 15 90 14 57 57.8
37. Essej 24105 1961-1993 68 28 102 10 271 270.9
38. Dzardzan 24143 1961-2000 68 44 124 00 45 45.5
39. Selagoncy 24329 1961-2000 66 15 114 17 235 237.6
40. Ust'-Moma 24382 1961-2000 66 27 143 14 195 196.8
41. Njurba 24639 1961-2000 63 17 118 20 129 131.2
42. Tompo 24671 1961-2000 63 57 135 52 400 402.8
43. Curapca 24768 1961-2000 62 02 132 36 179 183.7
44. Ilirnej 25248 1961-1997 67 20 168 14 426 427.4
45. Ust-Oloj 25325 1961-2000 66 33 159 25 125 125.0
46. Egvekinot 25378 1961-2000 66 21 180 53 15 19.8
47. Zyryanka 25400 1961-2000 65 44 150 54 43 44.9
48. Verhnee Penzino 25538 1961-2000 64 08 164 35 326 326.0
49. Srednekan 25705 1961-2000 62 27 152 19 264 266.1
50. Kamenskoe 25744 1961-2000 62 29 166 13 34 34.0
51. Leningrad 26063 1961-2000 59 58 30 18 2 4.0

Note that the station names, positions, and elevations provided by AARI may differ from those provided by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Table 3 shows where differences occur.

Table 3 contains station information contained on the WMO web site. The information was obtained from Meteorological Station Location Information on July 14, 2003. Some of the station names, geographical coordinates, and elevations differ from those obtained from AARI (displayed in Table 2).

Table 3. Discrepancies between WMO and AARI station information
AARI Station Number WMO Station Number AARI NAME WMO NAME AARI LATITUDE (DM) WMO LATITUDE (DM) AARI LONGITUDE (DM) WMO LONGITUDE (DM) AARI ELEVATION WMO ELEVATION
20107 20107 BARENTSBURG BARENCSBURG 78 04 78-04 14 15 014-15 15 49
20864 20864 TAMBEY TAMBEY 71 30 71-29 71 50 075-24 8 21
20963 20963 GYDA GYDA 70 53 70-53 78 28 078-30 8 8
20967 20967 SEYAKHA SEJAHA 70 13 70-10 72 36 072-31 16 16
21835 ----- NIJNEYNSK 71 29 136 42 2
21908 21908 DZHALINDA DZALINDA 70 08 70-08 113 58 113-58 62 62
21921 21921 KJUSJUR KJUSJUR 70 41 70-41 127 24 127-24 39 39
21946 21946 CHOKURDAH CHOKURDAH 70 37 70-37 147 53 147-53 48 61
22165 22165 KANIN NOS KANIN NOS 68 39 68-39 43 18 043-18 48 49
22235 22235 KRASNOSCELE KRASNOSCEL'E 67 22 67-21 37 02 037-03 155
22271 22271 SOJNA SOJNA 67 53 67-53 44 08 044-08 18 16
22292 22292 INDIGA INDIGA 67 42 67-41 48 46 048-41 4 3
22422 22422 GRIDINO GRIDINO 65 54 65-54 34 26 034-46 10
22471 22471 MEZEN MEZEN 65 52 65-52 44 13 044-13 14 14
22648 22648 TURCASOVO TURCASOVO 63 06 63-07 39 15 039-14 35
22676 22676 SURA SURA 63 35 63-35 45 38 045-38 62 66
22845 22845 KARGOPOL KARGOPOL 61 30 61-30 38 56 038-56 121 121
22954 22954 VOZEGA VOZEGA 60 28 60-28 40 12 040-12 178 178
23024 23024 BELYY NOS CAPE BELY 69 39 69-29 60 25 060-20 19 6
23029 23029 UST KARA UST-KARA 69 15 69-15 64 56 064-59 4 4
23058 23058 ANTIPAYUTA ANTIPAJETA 69 05 69-09 76 51 077-00 15 4
23074 23074 DUDINKA DUDINKA 69 24 69-24 86 10 086-10 28 19
23242 23242 NOVYY PORT NOVY PORT 67 42 67-41 72 54 072-52 12 12
23256 23256 TAZOVSKOE TAZOVSKOE 67 28 67-28 78 44 078-44 8 8
23274 23274 IGARKA IGARKA 67 28 67-28 86 34 086-34 30 30
23330 23330 SALEKHARD SALEHARD 66 32 66-32 66 32 066-40 35 16
23331 23331 RA-IZ RA-IZ 66 57 66-54 65 28 065-40 890 890
23341 23341 YAR-SALE JAR-SALE 66 50 66-50 70 49 070-50 8 8
23383 23383 AGATA AGATA 66 53 66-53 93 28 093-28 263 280
23405 23405 UST-CILMA UST'- CIL'MA 65 27 65-26 52 16 052-16 70 70
23418 23418 PECHORA PECHORA 65 07 65-07 57 06 057-06 56 56
23426 23426 MUZHY MUZI 65 23 65-23 64 43 064-43 18 18
23552 23552 TARKO-SALE TARKO-SALE 64 55 64-55 77 49 077-49 27 27
23625 23625 SOSVA SOSVA 63 39 63-39 61 59 062-06 27 27
23678 23678 VERHNE-IMBATSKOE VERHNEIMBATSK 63 09 63-09 87 57 087-57 40 40
23987 23987 JARCEVO JARCEVO 60 15 60-15 90 14 090-14 58 58
24105 24105 ESSEJ ESSEJ 68 28 68-28 102 10 102-22 271 271
24143 24143 DZHARDZHAN DZARDZAN 68 44 68-44 124 00 124-00 45 45
24329 24329 SELAGONCY SELAGONCY 66 15 66-15 114 17 114-17 235
24382 24382 UST-MOMA UST'- MOMA 66 27 66-27 143 14 143-14 196 196
24639 24639 NIURBA NJURBA 63 17 63-17 118 20 118-20 129 129
24671 24671 TOMPO TOMPO 63 57 63-57 135 52 135-52 400 400
24768 24768 CUPRAPCA CURAPCA 62 02 62-02 132 36 132-36 179 179
25248 25248 ILIRNEYJ ILIRNEJ 67 20 67-15 168 14 167-58 426 356
25325 25325 UST-OLOY UST'- OLOJ 66 33 66-33 159 25 159-25 213 125
25378 25378 EGVEKINOT EGVEKINOT 66 21 66-21 180 53 179-07 15 26
25400 25400 ZYRYANKA ZYRJANKA 65 44 65-44 150 54 150-54 43
25538 25538 VERHNEE PENZINO VERHNEE PENZINO 64 08 64-13 164 35 164-14 326 326
25705 ----- SREDNEKAN 62 27 152 19 264
25744 25744 KAMENSKOE KAMENSKO 62 29 62-26 166 13 166-05 34 8
26063 26063 LENINGRAD ST. PETERBURG 59 58 59-58 30 18 030-18 2 4
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Temporal Coverage

The data range from 1 January 1961 through 31 December 2000.

Meteorological observation hours were changed several times within the period of record. From 1961 through 1965, observations were at 0100, 0700, 1300 and 1900 local solar time; since 1966, observations were at 0000, 0300, 0600, 0900, 1200, 1500, 1800 and 2100 hours Moscow Local Time.

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Sample Data Record

The following data sample is from file uni.agata.23383.dat:

23383 1961 1 -1 -1 1 66.88 93.47 -40.3 1024.1 999.9 999.9 8.4 0.0 76 999.99 999.99 9999.9 32.0 999.99 999.99 agata
23383 1961 2 -1 -1 1 66.88 93.47 -31.9 1018.2 999.9 999.9 9.2 0.0 77 999.99 999.99 9999.9 28.0 999.99 999.99 agata
23383 1961 3 -1 -1 1 66.88 93.47 -15.2 1018.2 999.9 999.9 7.8 1.8 77 999.99 999.99 9999.9 25.0 999.99 999.99 agata
23383 1961 4 -1 -1 1 66.88 93.47 -8.6 1008.7 999.9 999.9 8.1 2.3 69 999.99 999.99 9999.9 34.0 999.99 999.99 agata

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Data Acquisition and Processing

These data were originally published in the Meteorological Monthly issues of the All-Russia Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information, (RIHMI), Obninsk. Data were digitized at the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg. The stations and time period covered by this data set were chosen to make data available that were not already available (as of 2000) in the NOAA National Climatic Data Center’s Global Historical Climate Network or at the International Arctic Research Center (IARC), Fairbanks, AK.

Average daily (from four observations per day for the period 1961-1965 and from eight observations per day since 1966) and monthly values of meteorological parameters were calculated from individual observations by the observer (a meteorologist) at each of the stations. The meteorologist calculated monthly mean from daily data as (d1 + d2 + ... + dn)/n, where n= 28,29,30 or 31 days. A monthly mean was not calculated if there were more than seven missing observations at the same observation time during the month (for example, 0000 or 0300).

Table 4 gives a description of the surface parameters and the accuracy of observations measured at the stations. When reviewing table 4, please refer to the Note on Precipitation section of this document. Meteorological observations were performed according to the Manual for Hydrometeorological Stations, Gidrometeoizdat, 1985 (translated from the Russian "Nastavlenie dlay gidrometeorologicheskih stantsy"). A standard meteorological site was 26 m by 26 m, and was located on relief typical of the area. It was more than 100 m distant from any bodies of water, and at a distance 20 times the height of any obstruction (such as trees or a building). Station and barometer elevations are presented in Table 6.

In the original data tables, some gaps occurred in the period of record and other gaps were introduced due to quality control. Quality control was performed at AARI using the methods outlined in Quality Control Methods.

Table 4. Meteorological parameters measured at the meteorological stations
Parameter Observation Observation method and accuracy
Air temperature Temperature, maximum, minimum (Temperature only in this data set) Measured by mercury thermometer placed in psychrometric box at a meteorological site. Measurement accuracy is equal to 0.1 °C.
Air pressure Pressure, pressure tendency (Pressure only in this data set) Measured by mercury barometer placed in stationary room at 50 to 60 cm height from floor (barometric cistern). Corrected record is written in hPa with accuracy up to 0.1 hPa. (1 mbar = 1hPa)
Air humidity Partial pressure of water vapor, relative humidity, moisture deficit (Relative humidity only in this data set) Calculated using records from dry-bulb and wet-bulb thermometers (in summer) and from dry thermometer and hair hygrometer (when temperature is below -10 °C). Calculation accuracy is 1 percent.
Precipitation Measurement of amount, duration period (within 24 hours), and type of precipitation two or four times within 24 hours (Measurement of amount only in this data set) Tretyakov precipitation gauge twice daily (0000 and 0600 hours local time) to an accuracy of 0.1 mm. [check this against Groisman paper]
Cloud cover Amount of total and low cloud, its form and type (Amount only in this data set). Cloud amount is given in tenths; cloud forms are defined by the international atlas of clouds; base height of low cloud border is defined visually or by IVO device with accuracy up to 50 m.
Quality Control Methods

No filtering or editing of the data took place at NSIDC. Plots showing the distribution of the data by month for each parameter at each station are available as pdf files in a single tarred file accessible via FTP.

The following documentation, provided by V. Radionov, describes general methods of quality control used at AARI.

Time series testing

Stage I:  Data that were not already in digital form were digitized from logbooks, bulletins, or charts. Quality control for monthly means was performed as follows:

  1. Each monthly mean (monthly means were calculated at each station by an observer) was evaluated based on the likelihood and consistency of individual parameter values. This excluded most large errors.
  2. For individual meteorological parameters, where the distribution is close to normal, statistical estimates of the mean and extremes can be used for testing. These parameters generally include pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, and surface temperature.
    • Grubbs' criterion (Grubbs, 1950) was used to detect individual extrema. If a point exceeded a threshold based on the mean, one may assume the hypothesis of over estimation. Points that exceeded plus or minus 2.5 standard deviations from the monthly mean were marked.
    • The modified criteria of Tietjen and Moore (1972) were sometimes used for testing outliers.

Values exceeding the thresholds were noted as questionable. As an additional quality control, a parameter may have been temporarily changed by interpolation of the tested parameter with observational data of this parameter across two adjacent intervals. Discrepancies between tested and interpolated parameter values were estimated as extreme deviations (Kolmogoroff deviation) and each evaluated by an expert, who made the ultimate decision. Additionally, all questionable observations were tested by an expert specialist from AARI who made the ultimate decision about the rejection of questionable values.

Stage II:  Testing during Stage I excluded crude errors. In Stage II, systematic errors connected with instrument function, improper operation, or with incorrect data processing were considered. These are errors that would not necessarily be routinely noticed.

Horizontal control between stations

Within a 40-year period, changes may appear in the climatic homogeneity of time series. These may result from changes in the meteorological station location, or in the station surroundings, and from natural climatic changes. The most common analysis methods of climatic homogeneity, the difference and ratio methods (Drozdov, 1989) are used in this test. This procedure makes it possible to identify shifts in parameter value. Other cases of climatic heterogeneity of temporal sets will not be identified during these threshold tests because it is impossible to distinguish the causes of heterogeneity without carrying out a sophisticated analysis. The data record of the 51 stations in this data set was tested by this method.

As in all preceding steps, an expert made the final decisions regarding quality control, including the advisability of testing observations at adjacent stations. Observations that passed all stages of the testing are included in this data set.

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Note on Precipitation

Precipitation measurements in this data set were acquired using Tretyakov’s precipitation gauges. Tretyakov’s precipitation gauges replaced rain gauges with Nipher shields at most Russian stations before 1954. Rain gauges with Nipher shields were replaced in order to reduce errors caused by the blowing of solid precipitation out of the gauges during snowstorms. Nipher gauges record considerably less solid precipitation than do Tretyakov gauges. For this reason data acquired using Nipher shield gauges cannot be used with data acquired using Tretyakov gauges without adjustments to the data record (Groisman and Rankova, 2001).

Prior to 1966, data used to create monthly totals of precipitation values were uncorrected for wind, gauge type, or wetting. Beginning in 1966, data were corrected for wetting directly by observers at the stations. The wetting correction is 0.2 mm for liquid and mixed precipitation, and 0.1 mm for solid precipitation, for each individual measurement. It is theoretically possible to correct monthly totals of precipitation prior to 1966 for wetting if daily precipitation totals and air temperatures are known, but doing so is beyond the scope of this data set.

Measuring arctic precipitation accurately is difficult and these data records are known to have errors. Users of these data should first become familiar with error sources. We strongly suggest consulting Groisman and Rankova (2001) and references contained therein, and the documentation on gridded precipitation fields in Arctic Climatology Project (2000) for an introduction to precipitation measurement issues. Groisman and Rankova (2001) have information on adjusting the raw precipitation measurements in this data set so that pre- and post-1966 values are homogeneous.

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References and Related Publications

Contacts and Acknowledgments

Vladimir Radionov
Head of the Department of Meteorology
Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute
St. Petersburg, Russia

Florence Fetterer
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0449
USA

Acknowledgments: 

These data were made available through funding from the NOAA Environmental Services Data and Information Management (ESDIM) program, in cooperation with the National Geophysical Data Center. ESDIM project number 02-442E, Dave Clark, Principal Investigator. Distribution of the data set from NSIDC is supported by funding from NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) and the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC).

Document Information

Document Creation Date

August 2003

Document Authors

This document was prepared by K. Webster and F. Fetterer based on the documentation of the related product, Arctic Climatology Project (2000), and on information supplied by V. Radionov, AARI. A. Machado reviewed the data and provided the graphic.

Document Revision Date

October 2006: F. Fetterer made minor edits, updated the documentation formatting, and provided a link to graphs of data.

No technical references available for this data set.
No FAQs or How Tos available for this data set.

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