Data Set ID: 

Snowpit Chemistry - Methods Comparison, WAIS Divide, Antarctica, Version 1

Measurements of a suite of trace elements in snow pit samples from WAIS Divide, Antarctica.

NSIDC does not archive these data.

  • Snow/Ice > Snow/Ice Chemistry > SNOW/ICE CHEMISTRY
  • Water Quality/Water Chemistry > Water Trace Elements > TRACE ELEMENTS
Data Format(s):
  • Excel
Spatial Coverage:
N: -79.28, 
S: -79.28, 
E: -112.05, 
W: -112.05
Spatial Resolution:Not SpecifiedSensor(s):MASS SPECTROMETERS
Temporal Coverage:
  • 1 April 2009 to 30 August 2009
Temporal ResolutionNot specifiedMetadata XML:View Metadata Record
Data Contributor(s):Karl Kreutz

Geographic Coverage

Please contact the data provider for the correct Data Citation for this data set.

Literature Citation

As a condition of using these data, we request that you acknowledge the author(s) of this data set by referencing the following peer-reviewed publication.

  • Koffman, B. G., M. Handley, E. C. Osterberg, M. L. Wells, and K. Kreutz. 2014. Dependence of ice-core relative trace-element concentration on acidification, Journal of Glaciology. 60. 103-112.

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Detailed Data Description


Data are in Microsoft Excel (.xlsx) format.

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File and Directory Structure

Data are available on the FTP site in the directory. Within this directory, there are two files: Kreutz_Koffman_trace_element_concentrations.xlxs and Kreutz_Koffman_trace_element_stdev.xlxs.

The data are formatted to be compatible with Matlab (i.e., there are no text cells, and any non-data values are signified by Not-a-Number (NaN)). The spreadsheets are organized, by rows, into three blocks, which contain data from a different acid treatment, in concentration order: 0.1% nitric acid, 1.0% nitric acid, and 10% nitric acid.

The first column gives the time, in days, each measurement was made relative to the beginning of the experiment. All other columns give measured concentrations (Kreutz_Koffman_trace_element_concentrations.xlxs) or standard deviations (Kreutz_Koffman_trace_element_stdev.xlxs). Each concentration is the average of five replicate samples, which were poured out of the sample bottle at each analysis time. Blanks have been subtracted from each value. For the standard deviation spreadsheet, the values given are one standard deviation of the five replicates at each analysis time.

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File Size

The Kreutz_Koffman_trace_element_concentrations.xlsx file is 50 KB, and the Kreutz_Koffman_trace_element_stdev.xls file is 45 KB.

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The entire data set is 95 KB.

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Spatial Coverage

The spatial coverage is the WAIS Divide, Antarctica: Latitude: 79°28.058' S; Longitude: 112°05.189' W.

Spatial Resolution

Altitude of the sample area is 1766 m above sea level (a.s.l.).

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Temporal Coverage

Data were collected from 01 April 2009 to 30 August 2009.

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Parameter or Variable

Snow/Ice Chemistry
Trace Elements

Sample Data Record

Refer to Figure 1 for an example of the data.

sample data
Figure 1. Snowpit Chemistry Data

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Software and Tools

Software and Tools

The data can be accessed using Microsoft Excel.

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Data Acquisition and Processing

Data Acquisition Methods

Snow samples were collected from a 2.6 m snow pit dug in 2008 at the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) Divide ice-core site (79°28.058' S, 112°05.189' W; 1766 m a.s.l.).

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Derivation Techniques and Algorithms

Processing Steps

The snow samples were homogenized, then split into three sub-samples, which were leached at different nitric acid strengths over the course of three months. Trace elements were measured using a Thermo Finnigan Element II Inductively Coupled Plasma Sector-Field Mass Spectrometer (ICP-SFMS), and include: Strontium (Sr), Cadmium (Cd), Cesium (Cs), Barium (Ba), Lanthanum (La), Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), Lead (Pb), Uranium (U), Bismuth (Bi), Arsenic (As) , Aluminum (Al), Lithium (Li), Sulfur (S), Calcium (Ca), Titanium (Ti), Vanadium (V), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Cobalt (Co), Magnesium (Mg), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na).

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Sensor or Instrument Description
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References and Related Publications

Contacts and Acknowledgments

Dr. Karl Kreutz
University of Maine
236 Sawyer Hall 
Orono, ME 04469

Dr. Bess Koffman
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
61 Route 9W
Palisades, NY 04469


This research was funded by National Science Foundation (NSF) Office of Polar Programs (OPP) grant number 0636740.

Document Information


May 2015

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