frozen ground or permafrost

epigenetic ice

ground ice developed in epigenetic permafrost, or in previously formed syngenetic permafrost.

electricity resistivity

the property of a material that determines the electrical current flowing through a centimetre cube of the material when an electrical potential is applied to opposite faces of the cube.

electrical properties of frozen ground

the dielectric constant (or relative permitivity), electrical conductivity and electrical resistivity are the major electrical properties governing the flow of electric current through frozen ground.

electrical conductivity

the inverse of electrical resistivity.

earth hummock

a hummock having a core of silty and clayey mineral soil which may show evidence of cryoturbation.

dynamic Poisson's ratio

the absolute value of the ratio between the linear strain changes, perpendicular to and in the direction of a given uniaxial stress change, respectively, under dynamic loading conditions.

dynamic modulus of elasticity

the ratio of stress to strain for a material under dynamic loading conditions.

dry permafrost

permafrost containing neither free water nor ice.

dry frozen ground

frozen ground with a very low total water content consisting almost completely of interfacial water, and not cemented by ice.

dry density

the mass of a unit volume of dried material (e.g. soil).

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