frozen ground or permafrost

frost action

the process of alternate freezing and thawing of moisture in soil, rock and other materials, and the resulting effects on materials and on structures placed on, or in, the ground.

friable permafrost

permafrost in which the soil particles are not held together by ice.

freezing-point depression

the number of degrees by which the freezing point of an earth material is depressed below 0 degrees Celsius.

freezing pressure

the positive pressure developed at ice-water interfaces in soil as it freezes.

freezing point

(1) the temperature at which a pure liquid solidifies under atmospheric pressure (2) the temperature at which a ground material starts to freeze.

freezing index

the cumulative number of degree-days below 0 degrees Celsius for a given time period.

freezing front

the advancing boundary between frozen (or partially frozen) ground and unfrozen ground.

freezing (of ground)

the changing of phase from water to ice in soil or rock.

freezeback

refreezing of thawed materials.

freeze-thaw cycle

freezing of a material followed by thawing.

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