frozen ground or permafrost

ice-cored topography

topography that is due almost solely to differences in the amount of excess ice underlying its surface.

ice-bonded permafrost

ice-bearing permafrost in which the soil particles are cemented together by ice.

ice-bearing permafrost

permafrost that contains ice.

ice wedge

narrow ice mass that is 3 to 4 meters (10 to 13 feet) wide at the ground surface, and extends as much as 10 meters (33 feet) down; a decrease in temperature during the winter leads to ice wedge cracks in the ground around ice wedges; during the summer, these cracks accumulate melt-water and sediment, forming pseudomorphs.

ice vein

an ice-filled crack or fissure in the ground.

ice segregation

the formation of discrete layers or lenses of segregated ice in freezing mineral or organic soils, as a result of the migration (and subsequent freezing) of pore water.

ice lens

a dominantly horizontal, lens-shaped body of ice of any dimension.

ice content

the amount of ice contained in frozen or partially frozen soil or rock.


the solid crystalline form of water.

hydrothermal talik

a layer or body of noncryotic unfrozen ground in a permafrost area, maintained by moving groundwater.


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