frozen ground or permafrost

relict ice

ice formed in, and remaining from, the geologically recent past.

relict active layer

a layer of ground, now perennially frozen, lying immediately below the modern active layer; its thickness indicates the greater annual depth of thaw that occurred during a previous period.

relative permittivity

the relative permitivity of a soil is the ratio of the permitivity of the soil to the permitivity of a vacuum.


in geology, a mineral compound resulting from a process by which the primary mineral component is replaced by another, although the compound maintains constant appearance and dimensions.


lowering the melting point of ice by applying pressure.

pore water

water occurring in the pores of soils and rocks.

pore ice

ice occurring in the pores of soils and rocks.

poorly-bonded permafrost

ice-bearing permafrost in which few of the soil particles are held together by ice.

polygonal peat plateau

a peat plateau with ice-wedge polygons.

polygonal pattern

a pattern consisting of numerous multi-sided, roughly equidimensional figures bounded by more or less straight sides.


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