About, How to Cite

We welcome everyone to our site. All About Frozen Ground was designed especially for educators and students up through the 12th grade. If you have questions about the site's content or about frozen ground, please contact us. We also appreciate your comments and suggestions.

Use of Materials

You may use all information and resources on this site free of charge for educational purposes. Unless otherwise specified, you may also use any images found on this site. Please credit "NSIDC" when using images from this site. When you use information from All About Frozen Ground, please use the following citation:

National Snow and Ice Data Center. All About Frozen Ground. https://nsidc.org/frozenground/

Site Credits

All About Frozen Ground was designed, researched, and written at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). NSIDC is part of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Scientists at NSIDC study frozen ground, and NSIDC also distributes data and information regarding frozen ground. NSIDC also studies other topics related to Earth's frozen regions, such as sea ice, glaciers, snow, and ice sheets.

NASA logo

We created All About Frozen Ground with support from a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 2007 Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) Education and Public Outreach grant.

Project Coordinator: Betsy Sheffield
Principal Scientist: Tingjun Zhang
Lead Author: Eric Gordon
Ecology Author: Jane Palmer
Senior Editors: Jane Beitler, Stephanie Renfrow

We thank Neil Davis, emeritus professor of geophysics at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks, for providing some of the graphics used on this site.


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Williams, P. J. 1989. The frozen Earth: Fundamentals of geocryology. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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Yohe, E. and L. J. Schmidt. 2005. Riding the permafrost express. NASA: Supporting Earth System Science 2005, 17-19. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Zhang, T. 2005. Influence of the seasonal snow cover on the ground thermal regime: An overview. Reviews of Geophysics 43, RG4002, doi:10.1029/2004RG000157.

Zhang, T., R. G. Barry, and R. L. Armstrong. 2004. Application of satellite remote sensing techniques to frozen ground studies. Polar Geography 28(3): 163-196.

Zhang, T., R. G. Barry, K. Knowles, J. A. Heginbottom, and J. Brown. 1999. Statistics and characteristics of permafrost and ground ice distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Polar Geography 23(2), 147-169.

Release Notes

Site publication date: December 10, 2008

How to Cite

To cite material from this website, NSIDC recommends the following format:

"All About Frozen Ground." National Snow and Ice Data Center. Accessed [Day] [Month] [Year]. /cryosphere/frozenground/index.html.

For example:
"All About Frozen Ground." National Snow and Ice Data Center. Accessed 1 February 2016. /cryosphere/frozenground/index.html.