About This Site

We welcome everyone to our site. All About Frozen Ground was designed especially for educators and students up through the 12th grade. If you have questions about the site's content or about frozen ground, please contact us. We also appreciate your comments and suggestions.

Use of Materials

You may use all information and resources on this site free of charge for educational purposes. Unless otherwise specified, you may also use any images found on this site. Please credit "NSIDC" when using images from this site. When you use information from All About Frozen Ground, please use the following citation:

National Snow and Ice Data Center. All About Frozen Ground. http://nsidc.org/frozenground/

Site Credits

All About Frozen Ground was designed, researched, and written at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). NSIDC is part of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Scientists at NSIDC study frozen ground, and NSIDC also distributes data and information regarding frozen ground. See our Frozen Ground Data Center for frozen ground data sets from NSIDC. NSIDC also studies other topics related to Earth's frozen regions, such as sea ice, glaciers, snow, and ice sheets.

NASA logo

We created All About Frozen Ground with support from a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 2007 Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) Education and Public Outreach grant.

Project Coordinator: Betsy Sheffield
Principal Scientist: Tingjun Zhang
Lead Author: Eric Gordon
Ecology Author: Jane Palmer
Senior Editors: Jane Beitler, Stephanie Renfrow

We thank Neil Davis, emeritus professor of geophysics at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks, for providing some of the graphics used on this site.

References

BBC News. 2005. Siberia's rapid thaw causes alarm. August 11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4141348.stm

Brown, J., K. M. Hinkel, and F. E. Nelson. 2000. The circumpolar active layer monitoring program: Research designs and initial results. Polar Geography 24(3): 165-258.

Davis, N. 2001. Permafrost: A guide to frozen ground in transition. Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press.

French, H. M. 1996. The periglacial environment. Essex, England: Addison Wesley Longman Limited.

Harris, S. A. 1986. The permafrost environment. Totowa, New Jersey: Barnes and Noble Books.

Lunardini, V. J. 1995. Permafrost formation time. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory Report 95-8.

Ping, C.- L., G. J. Michaelson, M. T. Jorgensen, J. M. Kimble, H. Epstein, V. E. Romanovsky, D. A. Walker. 2008. High stocks of soil organic carbon in the North American Arctic Region. Nature Geoscience 1, 615-619.

Romanovsky, V.E. Arctic Theme Page: How rapidly is permafrost changing and what are the impacts of these changes? National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/essay_romanovsky.html

Romanovsky, V. E., S. Gruber, A. Instanes, H. Jin, S. S. Marchenko, S. L. Smith, D. Trombotto, K. M. Walter. 2007. Frozen ground. In Global outlook for ice and snow, United Nations Environment Programme report, 181-200.

Serreze, Mark. Why is the Arctic so sensitive to climate change and why do we care? http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/essay_serreze.html

Varani, A. 2000. Frozen soils and the climate system. NASA Earth Observatory. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Study/FrozenSoils/

Williams, P. J. 1989. The frozen Earth: Fundamentals of geocryology. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Wise, J. 2007. Canada's ice road. Popular Mechanics, February. http://www.popularmechanics.com/outdoors/adventures/4212314.html

Yohe, E. and L. J. Schmidt. 2005. Riding the permafrost express. NASA: Supporting Earth System Science 2005, 17-19. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Zhang, T. 2005. Influence of the seasonal snow cover on the ground thermal regime: An overview. Reviews of Geophysics 43, RG4002, doi:10.1029/2004RG000157.

Zhang, T., R. G. Barry, and R. L. Armstrong. 2004. Application of satellite remote sensing techniques to frozen ground studies. Polar Geography 28(3): 163-196.

Zhang, T., R. G. Barry, K. Knowles, J. A. Heginbottom, and J. Brown. 1999. Statistics and characteristics of permafrost and ground ice distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Polar Geography 23(2), 147-169.

Release Notes

Site publication date: December 10, 2008