SOTC: References

Temperature Variation References

Goddard Institute for Space Studies. 2010. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis. Accessed 5 August 2010.

Goddard Institute for Space Studies. 2013. NASA Finds 2012 Sustained Long-Term Climate Warming Trend. Accessed January 16, 2014.

Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, J. Glascoe, and Mki. Sato. 1999. GISS analysis of surface temperature change. Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 30997-31022.

Hansen, J.E., R. Ruedy, Mki. Sato, M. Imhoff, W. Lawrence, D. Easterling, T. Peterson, and T. Karl. 2001. A closer look at United States and global surface temperature change. Journal of Geophysical Research 106: 23947-23963.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2001. IPCC Third Assessment Report - Climate Change 2001.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report - Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis Summary for Policymakers.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2013. IPCC Fifth Assessment Report - Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis Summary for Policymakers.

Karl, T.R., K.E. Trenberth. 2003. Modern global climate change. Science 302: 1719-1723.

National Research Council (NRC). 2000. Reconciling observations of global temperature change. Panel on Reconciling Temperature Observations, Climate Research Committee, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources. National Academy Press.

Serreze, M.C., J.E. Walsh, F.S. Chapin III, T. Osterkamp, M. Dyurgerov, V. Romanovsky, W.C. Oechel, J. Morison, T. Zhang, and R.G. Barry. 2000. Observational evidence of recent change in the northern high-latitude environment. Climatic Change 46: 159-207.

Northern Hemisphere Snow References

Armstrong, R.L., and M.J. Brodzik. 2001. Recent Northern Hemisphere snow extent: A comparison of data derived from visible and microwave sensors. Geophysical Research Letters 28(19): 3673-3676.

Brodzik, M.J., R.L. Armstrong, E.C. Weatherhead, M.H. Savoie, K.W. Knowles, and D.A. Robinson. 2006. Regional trend analysis of satellite-derived snow extent and global temperature anomalies. EOS Transactions AGU 87(52), Fall Meeting Supplement. Abstract U33A-0011.

Derksen, C., and R. Brown. 2012. Spring snow cover extent reductions in the 2008–2012 period exceeding climate model projections. Geophysical Research Letters 39, L19504.

Frei, A., and D.A. Robinson. 1999. Northern Hemisphere snow extent: Regional variability 1972-1994. International Journal of Climatology 19: 1535-1560.

Groisman, P., T.R. Karl, and R.W. Knight. 1994. Observed impact of snow cover on the heat balance and the rise of continental spring temperatures. Science 263: 198-200.

Mote, P.W., A.F. Hamlet, M.P. Clark, and D.P. Lettenmaier. 2005. Declining mountain snowpack in western North America. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 86: 39-49.

Robinson. D.A., and A. Frei. 2000. Seasonal variability of Northern Hemisphere snow extent using visible satellite data. Professional Geographer 52(2): 307-315.

Mountain Glacier References

Bamber, J., and A. Payne, eds. 2004. Mass balance of the cryosphere. In Observations and modeling of contemporary and future changes. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Cogley, J.G., and W.P. Adams. 1998. Mass balance of glaciers other than the ice sheets. Journal of Glaciology 44(147): 315-325.

Cogley, J.G. 2002. Glaciology at Trent. Accessed 10 February 2005.

Dyurgerov, M.B., and M.F. Meier. 1997. Mass balance of mountain and subpolar glaciers: A new global assessment for 1961-1990. Arctic and Alpine Research 29(4): 379-391.

Dyurgerov, M.B. 2002. Glacier mass balance and regime: Data measurements and analysis. Occasional Paper No. 55.

Dyurgerov, M.B., and M.F. Meier. 2005. Glaciers and the changing Earth system: A 2004 snapshot. Occasional Paper No. 58.

Haeberli, W., M. Hoelzle, and S. Suter, eds. 1998. Into the second century of world glacier monitoring – prospects and strategies. Studies and reports in hydrology - a contribution to the IHP and the GEMS. World Glacier Monitoring Service.

Kaser, G., J.G. Cogley, M.B. Dyurgerov, M.F. Meier, and A. Ohmura. 2006. Mass balance of glaciers and ice caps: Consensus estimates for 1961-2004. Geophysical Research Letters 33: L19501.

Meier, M.F., and D.B. Bahr. 1996. Counting glaciers: Use of scaling methods to estimate the number and size distribution of the glaciers of the world. In Glaciers, Ice Sheets, and Volcanoes: A Tribute to Mark F. Meier. S.C. Colbeck, ed. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL).

Oerlemans, J. 2001. Glaciers and climate change. A.A. Balkena Publishers.

Raup, B., A. Racoviteanu, S.J.S. Khalsa, C. Helm, R. Armstrong, and Y. Arnaud. 2007. The GLIMS geospatial glacier database: a new tool for studying glacier change. Global and Planetary Change 56: 101-110.

Permafrost and Frozen Ground References

Brown, J., O.J. Ferrians, Jr., J.A. Heginbottom, and E.S. Melnikov. 1998. Digital Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground-Ice Conditions. In International Permafrost Association, Data and Information Working Group, comp. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS) version 1.0. Available from NSIDC User Services.

ENN News Archive. 1999. Warm Arctic may enhance global warming. 1 March 1999. Environmental News Network.

Goulden, M.L., S.C. Wofsy, J.W. Harden, S.E. Trumbore, P.M. Crill, S.T. Gower, T. Fries, B.C. Daube, S.-M. Fan, D.J. Sutton, A. Bazzaz, and J.W. Munger. 1998. Sensitivity of boreal forest carbon balance to soil thaw. Science 279: 214-217.

Isaksen, K., R.E. Benestad, C. Harris, and J.L. Sollid. 2007. Recent extreme near-surface permafrost temperatures on Svalbard in relation to future climate scenarios. Geophysical Research Letters 34: L17502.

Lawrence, D.M., and A.G. Slater. 2005. A projection of severe near-surface permafrost degradation during the 21st century. Geophysical Research Letters 32: L24401.

National Research Council of Canada. 1988. Glossary of permafrost and related ground-ice terms. Permafrost Subcommittee, Associate Committee on Geotechnical Research.

Nelson, F.E., O.A. Anisimov, and N.I. Shiklomanov. 2001. Subsidence risk from thawing permafrost. Nature 410: 889-890.

Osterkamp, T.E. 2007. Characteristics of the recent warming of permafrost in Alaska. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: F02S02.

Williams, P.J., and M.W. Smith. 1989. The frozen earth: Fundamentals of geocryology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Zhang, T., R.G. Barry, K. Knowles, J.A. Heginbottom, and J. Brown. 1999. Statistics and characteristics of permafrost and ground ice distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Polar Geography 23(2): 147-169.

Zhang, T., R.L. Armstrong, and J. Smith. 2003. Investigation of the near-surface soil freeze-thaw cycle in the contiguous United States: Algorithm development and validation. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D22): 8860.

Zhang, T., R.G. Barry, K. Knowles, F. Ling, and R.L. Armstrong. 2003. Distribution of seasonally and perennially frozen ground in the Northern Hemisphere. In Permafrost. Phillips, Springman, and Arenson, eds. Swets and Zeitlinger.

Zhang, T. 2005. Influence of the seasonal snow cover on the ground thermal regime: an overview. Reviews of Geophysics 43: RG4002.

Sea Ice References

Cavalieri, D.J., C.L. Parkinson, and K.Y. Vinnikov. 2003. 30-year satellite record reveals contrasting Arctic and Antarctic decadal sea ice variability. Geophysical Research Letters 18: 1970.

Johannessen, O.M., E.V. Shalina, and M.W. Miles. 1999. Satellite evidence for an Arctic sea ice cover in transformation. Science 286: 1937-1939.

Kwok, R., and D.A. Rothrock. 2009. Decline in Arctic sea ice thickness from submarine and ICESat records: 1958-2008. Geophysical Research Letters 36: L15501.

Lindsay, R.W., and J. Zhang. 2005. The thinning of Arctic sea ice, 1988-2003: Have we passed a tipping point? Journal of Climate 18: 4879-4894.

Maslanik, J.A., M.C. Serreze, and R.G. Barry. 1996. Recent decreases in Arctic summer ice cover and linkages to atmospheric circulation anomalies. Geophysical Research Letters 23: 1677-1680.

Maslanik, J.A., M.C. Serreze, and T. Agnew. 1999. On the record reduction in 1998 western Arctic sea-ice cover. Journal of Geophysical Research 26(13): 1905-1908.

Maslanik, J.A., C. Fowler, J. Stroeve, S. Drobot, J. Zwally, D. Yi, and W. Emery. 2007. A younger, thinner Arctic ice cover: Increased potential for rapid, extensive sea-ice loss. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L24501.

Meier, W.N., J.C. Stroeve, and F. Fetterer. 2006. Whither Arctic sea ice? A clear signal of decline regionally, seasonally and extending beyond the satellite record. Annals of Glaciology 46: 428-434.

Parkinson, C.L. 1995. Recent sea-ice advances in Baffin Bay/Davis Strait and retreats in the Bellingshausen Sea. Annals of Glaciology 21: 348-352.

Rigor, I.G., J.M. Wallace, and R.L. Colony. 2002. Response of sea-ice to the Arctic Oscillation. Journal of Climate 15: 2648-2663.

Rigor, I.G., and J.M. Wallace, 2004. Variations in the age of Arctic sea-ice and summer sea-ice extent. Geophysical Research Letters 31: L09401.

Rothrock, D.A., Y. Yu, and G.A. Maykut. 1999. Thinning of the Arctic sea-ice cover. Geophysical Research Letters 26(23): 3469-3472.

Serreze, M.C., J.A. Maslanik, T.A. Scambos, F. Fetterer, J. Stroeve, K. Knowles, C. Fowler, S. Drobot, R.G. Barry, and T.M. Haran. 2003. A record minimum Arctic sea ice extent and area in 2002. Geophysical Research Letters 30(3): 1110.

Serreze, M.C., M.M. Holland, and J. Stroeve. 2007. Perspectives on the Arctic's shrinking sea-ice cover. Science 315: 1533-1536.

Stirling, I., and C.L. Parkinson. 2006. Possible effects of climate warming on selected populations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic. Arctic 59(3): 261-275.

Stroeve, J.C., M.C. Serreze, F. Fetterer, T. Arbetter, W. Meier, J. Maslanik, and K. Knowles. 2005. Tracking the Arctic's Shrinking Ice Cover: Another Extreme Minimum in 2004. Geophysical Research Letters 32: L04501.

Stroeve, J., M.M. Holland, W. Meier, T. Scambos, and M. Serreze. 2007. Arctic sea ice decline: Faster than forecast. Geophysical Research Letters 34: L09501.

Vinnikov, K.Y., A. Robock, R.J. Stouffer, J.E. Walsh, C.L. Parkinson, D.J. Cavalieri, J.F.B. Mitchell, D. Garrett, and V.F. Zakharov. 1999. Global warming and Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent. Science 286: 1934-1937.

Zhang, J. 2012. Modeling the impact of wind intensification on Antarctic sea ice volume. Journal of Climate 27: 202-214.

Ice Shelves References

Cooper, A.P.R. 1997. Historical observations of Prince Gustav Ice Shelf. Polar Record 33(187): 285-294.

Doake, C.S.M., and D.G. Vaughan. 1991. Rapid disintegration of the Wordie Ice Shelf in response to atmospheric warming. Nature 350: 328-330.

Fox, A.J., and D.G. Vaughan. 2005. The retreat of Jones Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula. Journal of Glaciology 51(175): 555-560.

Glasser, N.F., and T.A. Scambos. 2008. A structural glaciological analysis of the 2002 Larsen B ice shelf collapse. Journal of Glaciology 54(184): 3-16.

Hughes, T. 1983. On the disintegration of ice shelves: The role of fracture. Journal of Glaciology 29(101): 98-117.

Jeffries, M.O. 2002. Ellesmere Island ice shelves and ice islands. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-J J147-J163.

Joughin, I., W. Abdalati, and M. Fahnestock. 2004. Large fluctuations in speed on Greenland's Jakobshavn Isbræ glacier. Nature 432: 608-610.

Khazendar, A., E. Rignot, and E. Larour. 2007. Larsen B Ice Shelf rheology preceding its disintegration inferred by a control method. Geophysical Research Letters 34: L19503.

Lucchitta, B.K., and C.E. Rosanova. 1998. Retreat of northern margins of George VI and Wilkins Ice Shelves, Antarctic Peninsula. Annals of Glaciology 27: 41-46.

Payne, A.J., A. Vieli, A.P. Shepherd, D.J. Wingham, E. Rignot. 2004. Recent dramatic thinning of largest West Antarctic ice stream triggered by oceans. Geophysical Research Letters 31; L23401.

Rack, W., and H. Rott. 2004. Pattern of retreat and disintegration of the Larsen B Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula. Annals of Glaciology 39: 505-510.

Rignot, E., and S.S. Jacobs. 2002. Rapid bottom melting widespread near Antarctic Ice Sheet grounding lines. Science 296(5575): 2020-2023.

Rignot, E., G. Casassa, P. Gogineni, W. Krabill, A. Rivera, and R. Thomas. 2004. Accelerated ice discharge from the Antarctic Peninsula following the collapse of Larsen B ice shelf. Geophysical Research Letters 31: L18401.

Rignot, E., J.L. Bamber, M.R. van den Broeke, C. Davis, Y. Li, W.J. van de Berg, and E. van Meijgaard. 2008. Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling. Nature Geoscience 1: 106-110.

Rott, H., P. Skvarca, and T. Nagler. 1996. Rapid collapse of northern Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Science 271: 788-792.

Rott, H., W. Rack, P. Skvarca, and H. De Angelis. 2002. Northern Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica: Further retreat after collapse. Annals of Glaciology 34: 277-282.

Scambos, T.A., C. Hulbe, M.A. Fahnestock, and J. Bohlander. 2000. The link between climate warming and breakup of ice shelves in the Antarctic Peninsula. Journal of Glaciology 46(154): 516-530.

Scambos, T., C. Hulbe, and M. Fahnestock. 2003. Climate-induced ice shelf disintegration in the Antarctic Peninsula. In Antarctic Peninsula climate variability: historical and paleoenvironmental perspectives, Antarctic Research Series 79: 79-92.

Scambos, T.A., J.A. Bohlander, C.A. Shuman, and P. Skvarca. 2004. Glacier acceleration and thinning after ice shelf collapse in the Larsen B embayment, Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters 31: L18402.

Scambos, T.A., T.M. Haran, M.A. Fahnestock, T.H. Painter, and J.A. Bohlander. 2007. MODIS-based Mosaic of Antarctica (MOA) data sets: Continent-wide surface morphology and snow grain size. Remote Sensing of Environment 111(2-3): 242-257.

Scambos, T.A., H.A. Fricker, C.-C. Liu, J. Bohlander, J. Fastook, A. Sargent, R. Massom, A.-M. Wu. 2009. Ice shelf disintegration by plate bending and hydro-fracture: Satellite observations and model results of the 2008 Wilkins ice shelf break-ups. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 280: 51-60.

Shepherd, A., D. Wingham, T. Payne, P. Skvarca. 2003. Larsen Ice Shelf has progressively thinned. Science 302(5646): 856-859.

Skvarca, P. 1994. Changes and surface features of the Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica, derived from Landsat and Kosmos mosaics. Annals of Glaciology 20: 6-12.

Stammerjohn, S.E., D.G. Martinson, R.C. Smith, and R.A. Iannuzzi. 2008. Sea ice in the western Antarctic Peninsula region: Spatio-temporal variability from ecological and climate change perspectives. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 55(18-19): 2041-2058.

Vaughan, D.G., and C.S.M. Doake. 1996. Recent atmospheric warming and retreat of ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula. Nature 379: 328-331.

Vieli, A., A.J. Payne, A. Shepherd, Z. Du. 2007. Causes of pre-collapse changes of the Larsen B ice shelf: Numerical modelling and assimilation of satellite observations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 259: 297-306.

Ward, C.G. 1995. Mapping ice front changes of Müller Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Science 7(2): 197-198.

Weertman, J. 1973. Can a water-filled crevasse reach the bottom surface of a glacier? In International Association of Scientific Hydrology (Symposium at Cambridge 1969: Hydrology of Glaciers) 95: 139-145.

Zwally, H.J., W. Abdalati, T. Herring, K. Larson, J. Saba, and K. Steffen. 2002. Surface melt-induced acceleration of Greenland ice-sheet flow. Science 297: 218-222.

Ice Sheet References

Berthier E., T.A. Scambos, and C.A. Shuman. 2012. Mass loss of Larsen B tributary glaciers (Antarctic Peninsula) unabated since 2002. Geophysical Research Letters 39: L13501.

Chen, J.L., C.R. Wilson, D. Blankenship, and B.D. Tapley. 2009. Accelerated Antarctic ice loss from satellite gravity measurements. Nature Geoscience 2, 859-862.

Flament, T., and F. Rémy. 2012. Dynamic thinning of Antarctic glaciers from along-track repeat radar altimetry. Journal of Glaciology 58(211): 830-840.

Gregory, J.M., P. Huybrechts, and S.C.B. Raper. 2004. Threatened loss of the Greenland ice-sheet. Nature 428: 616.

Howat, I.M., I. Joughin, T.A. Scambos. 2007. Rapid changes in ice discharge from Greenland outlet glaciers. Science 315: 1559-1561.

Joughin, I., W. Abdalati, and M. Fahnestock. 2004. Large fluctuations in speed on Greenland's Jakobshavn Isbræ glacier. Nature 432: 608-610.

Joughin, I., S.B. Das, M.A. King, B.E. Smith, I.M. Howat, and T. Moon. 2008. Seasonal speedup along the western flank of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 320: 781-783.

Joughin, I., B.E. Smith, I.M. Howat, T. Scambos, T. Moon. 2010. Greenland flow variability from ice-sheet-wide velocity mapping. Journal of Glaciology 56(197): 415-430.

Khan, S.A., J. Wahr, M. Bevis, and I. Velicogna. 2010. Spread of ice mass loss into northwest Greenland observed by GRACE and GPS. Geophysical Research Letters 37: L06501.

Krabill, W., E. Hanna, P. Huybrechts, W. Abdalati, J. Cappelen, B. Csatho, E. Frederick, S. Manizade, C. Martin, J. Sonntag, R. Swift, and R. Thomas. 2004. Greenland Ice Sheet: Increased coastal thinning. Geophysical Research Letters 31: L24402.

Luthcke, S.B., H.J. Zwally, W. Abdalati, D.D. Rowlands, R.D. Ray, R.S. Nerem, F.G. Lemoine, J.J. McCarthy, and D. S. Chinn. 2006. Recent Greenland ice mass loss by drainage system from satellite gravity observations. Science 314: 1286-1289.

Lythe, M.B., D.G. Vaughan, and BEDMAP Consortium. 2001. BEDMAP: A new ice thickness and subglacial topographic model of Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research 106(B6): 11335-11351.

Pritchard, H.D., R.J. Arthern, D.G. Vaughan, and L.A. Edwards. 2009. Extensive dynamic thinning on the margins of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Nature 461, 971-975.

Pritchard, H.D., S.R.M. Ligtenberg, H.A. Fricker, D.G. Vaughan, M.R. van den Broeke, and L. Padman. 2012. Antarctic ice-sheet loss driven by basal melting of ice shelves. Nature 484(7395): 502-505.

Rignot, E., and R.H. Thomas. 2002. Mass balance of polar ice sheets. Science 297: 1502-1506.

Rignot, E., G. Casassa, P. Gogineni, W. Krabill, A. Rivera, and R. Thomas. 2004. Accelerated ice discharge from the Antarctic Peninsula following the collapse of Larsen B ice shelf. Geophysical Research Letters 31: L18401.

Rignot, E., J.L. Bamber, M.R. van den Broeke, C. Davis, Y. Li, W.J. van de Berg, and E. van Meijgaard. 2008. Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modeling. Nature Geoscience 1: 106-110.

Rignot, E., M. Koppes, and I. Velicogna. 2010. Rapid submarine melting of the calving faces of West Greenland glaciers. Nature Geoscience 3: 187-191.

Rignot, E., J. Mouginot, and B. Scheuchl. 2011. Ice flow of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Science 333: 1427-1430.

Rignot, E., I. Velicogna, M.R. van den Broeke, A. Monaghan, and J. Lenaerts. 2011. Acceleration of the contribution of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to sea level rise. Geophysical Research Letters 38, L05503-L05508.

Rignot, E., and J. Mouginot. 2012. Ice flow in Greenland for the International Polar Year 2008-2009. Geophysical Research Letters 39: L11501.

Scambos, T., C. Hulbe, and M. Fahnestock. 2003. Climate-induced ice shelf disintegration in the Antarctic Peninsula. In Antarctic Peninsula climate variability: historical and paleoenvironmental perspectives, Antarctic Research Series 79: 79-92.

Scambos, T.A., J.A. Bohlander, C.A. Shuman, and P. Skvarca. 2004. Glacier acceleration and thinning after ice shelf collapse in the Larsen B embayment, Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters 31: L18402.

Shepherd, A., and D. Wingham. 2007. Recent sea-level contributions of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets. Science 315: 1529-1532.

Shephard, A., E.R. Ivins, G. A, V.R. Barletta, M.J. Bentley, S. Bettadpur, K.H. Briggs, D.H. Bromwich, R. Forsberg, N. Galin, M. Horwath, S. Jacobs, I. Joughin, M.A. King, J.T.M. Lenaerts, J. Li, S.R.M. Ligtenberg, A. Luckman, S.B. Luthcke, M. McMillan, R. Meister, G. Milne, J. Mouginot, A. Muir, J.P. Nicolas, J. Paden, A.J. Payne, H. Pritchard, E. Rignot, H. Rott, L.S. Sørensen, T.A. Scambos, B. Scheuchl, E.J.O. Schrama, B. Smith, A.V. Sundal, J.H. van Angelen, W.J. van de Berg, M.R. van den Broeke, D.G. Vaughan, I. Velicogna, J. Wahr, P.L. Whitehouse, D.J. Wingham, D. Yi, D. Young, and H.J. Zwally. 2012. A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance. Science 338(6111): 1183-1189.

Shuman, C.A., E. Berthier, and T.A. Scambos. 2011. 2001-2009 elevation and mass losses in the Larsen A and B embayments, Antarctic Peninsula. Journal of Glaciology 57: 737-754.

Sundal, A.V., A. Shepherd, P. Nienow, E. Hanna., S. Palmer, and P. Huybrechts. 2011. Melt-induced speed-up of Greenland ice sheet offset by efficient subglacial drainage. Nature 469: 521-524.

Tedesco, M., X. Fettweis, M.R. van den Broeke, R.S.W. van de Wal, C.J.P.P. Smeets, W.J. van de Berg, M.C. Serreze, and J.E. Box. 2011. The role of albedo and accumulation in the 2010 melting record in Greenland. Environmental Research Letters 6: 014005.

Velicogna, I., and J. Wahr. 2006. Acceleration of Greenland ice mass loss in spring 2004. Nature 443:329-331.

Velicogna, I., and J. Wahr. 2006. Measurements of time-variable gravity show mass loss in Antarctica. Science 311: 1754-1756.

Velicongna, I. 2009. Increasing rates of ice mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets revealed by GRACE. Geophysical Research Letters 36: L19503.

Zwally, H.J., W Abdalati, T. Herring, K. Larson, J. Saba, and K. Steffen. 2002. Surface melt-induced acceleration of Greenland Ice-Sheet flow. Science 297: 218-222.

Sea Level References

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report - Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis Summary for Policymakers.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2013. IPCC Fifth Assessment Report - Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis Summary for Policymakers.

Meier, M.F., M.B. Dyurgerov, U.K. Rick, S. O'Neel, W.T. Pfeffer, R.S. Anderson, S.P. Anderson, and A.F. Glazovsky. 2007. Glaciers dominate eustatic sea-level rise in the 21st century. Science 317: 1064-1067.

Last updated: 6 February 2014