- References and Links
References and Links
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Ocean Science Research Element, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "Brine Drainage." Accessed April 2005.
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Maykut, G. 1986. The surface heat and mass balance. In The geophysics of sea ice, edited by N. Untersteiner. New York: Plenium.
Maykut, G., and N. Untersteiner. 1971. Some results from a time-dependent thermodynamic model of Arctic sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research 76(6): 1,550-1,575.
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Wadhams, P. 2000. Ice in the ocean. Australia: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.
"Antarctic Penguins Thrive in Ocean Oases." 2003. http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2003/0930penguins.html. Accessed February 2005.
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Gilbert, M. 2004. University of Alaska Fairbanks. "Global Climate Change Threatens Reindeer, Caribou."http://www.uaf.edu/news/a_news/20041028115553.html. Accessed July 2005.
Härkönen, T., O. Stenman, M. Jüssi, I. Jüssi, R. Sagitov, and M. Verevkin. 1998. Population size and distribution of the Baltic ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica). NAMMCO Science Publication 1: 167-180.
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Johansen, B.E. 2006. Global warming in the 21st century. Richmond, IN: Praeger Publishers.
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Kerr, R.A. 2005. Scary Arctic Ice Loss? Blame the Wind (PDF file, 100 KB). Science 307(5,707): 203.
Kerr, R.A. 2002. Whither arctic ice? Less of it, for sure. Science 297: 1,491.
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Lilley, R. "Iceberg Blocks Supplies to Penguins, Science Stations." http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/2004-12-14-oh-no-floe-woe_x.htm. USA Today, 14 December 2004.
McNutt, L. "How Does Ice Cover Vary in the Bering Sea From Year to Year?" http://www.beringclimate.noaa.gov/essays_mcnutt.html. Accessed February 2005.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). "Marine Ecosystem - Bering Sea." Arctic Change. http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/detect/marine-bering.shtml. Accessed February 2005.
North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO). Date unknown. Status of marine mammals in the North Atlantic: The ringed seal (PDF file, 63 KB). Tromsø, Norway: North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission.
Pagophilus.Org. 2001. "Harp Seal" and "Ringed Seal." Accessed July 2005.
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Serreze, M. Personal communication. February 2005.
Stroeve, J., M. Serreze, F. Fetterer, T. Arbetter, W. Meier, J. Maslanik, and K. Knowles. 2005. Tracking the Arctic's shrinking ice cover: another extreme minimum in 2004. Geophysical Research Letters 32(4), doi:10.1029/2004GL021810.
Alexander, Caroline. 2001. The Endurance, Shackleton's legendary antarctic expedition. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Alexander, Caroline, 1999. Mrs. Chippy's last expedition: the remarkable journal of Shackleton's polar-bound cat. New York, NY: Perennial.
Bryce, Robert M. 1997. Cook and Peary: the polar controversy, resolved. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole.
The Endurance—Shackleton's Legendary Antarctic Expedition. 2000. Columbia Tristar Home Video.
Guttridge, Leonard F. 1986. Icebound, the Jeanette expedition's quest for the North Pole. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.
Lansing. A. 1999. Endurance: Shackleton's incredible voyage, 2nd Edition. New York, NY: Carroll & Graf.
Mulvaney, Kieran. 2001. At the ends of the earth: a history of the polar regions. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
Shackleton—The Greatest Survival Story of All Time. 2002. A&E Home Video.
Shackleton, Ernest. 1999, originally published 1919. South: the story of Shackleton's last expedition, 1914-1917. Edited by Peter King. North Pomfret, VT: Trafalgar Square Publishing.
Shackleton, Ernest. 1998, originally published 1919. South: a memoir of the Endurance voyage. New York, NY: Carroll & Graf.
Ernest H. Shackleton (South-Pole.com)
The Fram (Fram Museum)
Roald Amundsen (South-Pole.com)
Robert Falcon Scott (South-Pole.com)
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