References and Links

Introduction

Advanced Water Systems. "Sea Water." http://oceansjsu.com/105d/Readings/Seawater_Sound_Ice.pdf (PDF file, 258 KB) Accessed November 2012.

Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. "Seawater, Sound & Ice." http://pao.cnmoc.navy.mil/pao/Educate/OceanTalk2/indexseawater.htm. Accessed March 2005.

The sun sets and moon rises behind icebergs and sea ice

The sun sets and moon rises behind icebergs and sea ice.
Image courtesy Andy Mahoney

Nuttall, M., editor. 2005. Encylopedia of the arctic. New York and London: Routledge.

Characteristics

Ocean Science Research Element, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "Brine Drainage." Accessed April 2005.

Processes

AMAP 1998. AMAP assessment report: Arctic pollution issues. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway. Xii+859 pp.

Maykut, G. 1986. The surface heat and mass balance. In The geophysics of sea ice, edited by N. Untersteiner. New York: Plenium.

Maykut, G., and N. Untersteiner. 1971. Some results from a time-dependent thermodynamic model of Arctic sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research 76(6): 1,550-1,575.

Perovich, D.K. 1998. The optical properties of sea ice. In Physics of ice-covered seas, edited by M. Leppäranta. Helsinki: University of Helsinki Press.

Thorndike, A.S., and R. Colony. 1982. Sea ice motion in response to geostrophic winds. Journal of Geophysical Research 87(C8): 5,845-5,852.

Wadhams, P. 2003. "How Does Arctic Sea Ice Form and Decay?" http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/essay_wadhams.html. Accessed April 2005.

Wadhams, P. 2000. Ice in the ocean. Australia: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.

Environment

"Antarctic Penguins Thrive in Ocean Oases." 2003. http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2003/0930penguins.html. Accessed February 2005.

Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. 2004. http://www.amap.no/workdocs/. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). 1997. Arctic Pollution Issues: A State of the Arctic Environment Report. Oslo, Norway: Arctic monitoring and Assessment Programme.

Arrigo, K.R., and G.L. van Dijken. 2003. Phytoplankton dynamics within 37 Antarctic coastal polynya systems. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(C8): 3271-3218.

Cavalieri, D.J., C.L. Parkinson, and K.Y. Vinnikov. 2003. 30-year satellite record reveals contrasting Arctic and Antarctic decadal sea ice variability. Geophysical Research Letters 30(18), doi:10.1029/2003GL018031.

Cheng, C.C., and L. Chen. 1999. Evolution of an antifreeze glycoprotein. Nature 401: 443-444.

Danish Environmental Protection Agency. 2005. http://eng.mst.dk/. Accessed September 2014.

Environment News Service (ENS). "Thin Polar Bears Called Sign of Global Warming. http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/may2002/2002-05-16-07.asp. Accessed 16 May 2002.

Flaherty, S. 2000. "What's In a Name?" Smithsonian National Zoological Park.

Gilbert, M. 2004. University of Alaska Fairbanks. "Global Climate Change Threatens Reindeer, Caribou."http://www.uaf.edu/news/a_news/20041028115553.html. Accessed July 2005.

Härkönen, T., O. Stenman, M. Jüssi, I. Jüssi, R. Sagitov, and M. Verevkin. 1998. Population size and distribution of the Baltic ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica). NAMMCO Science Publication 1: 167-180.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2001. Climate change 2001 - Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contributions of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Johansen, B.E. 2006. Global warming in the 21st century. Richmond, IN: Praeger Publishers.

Johansen, B.E. 2001. The global warming desk reference. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.

Kerr, R.A. 2005. Scary Arctic Ice Loss? Blame the Wind (PDF file, 100 KB). Science 307(5,707): 203.

Kerr, R.A. 2002. Whither arctic ice? Less of it, for sure. Science 297: 1,491.

Krajick, K. 2001. Arctic life, on thin ice.Science291(5503): 424-425.

Laidre, K.L., and M.P. Heide-Jorgensen. 2005. Arctic sea ice trends and narwhal vulnerability. Biological Conservation 121: 509-517.

Laxon, S., N. Peacock, and D. Smith. 2003. High interannual variability of sea-ice thickness in the arctic region. Nature 425: 947-950.

Lilley, R. "Iceberg Blocks Supplies to Penguins, Science Stations." http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/2004-12-14-oh-no-floe-woe_x.htm. USA Today, 14 December 2004.

McNutt, L. "How Does Ice Cover Vary in the Bering Sea From Year to Year?" http://www.beringclimate.noaa.gov/essays_mcnutt.html. Accessed February 2005.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). "Marine Ecosystem - Bering Sea." Arctic Change. http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/detect/marine-bering.shtml. Accessed February 2005.

Norris, S., L. Rosentrater, and P.M. Eid. 2002. Polar Bears at Risk (PDF file, 381 KB). Oslo, Norway: WWF International Arctic Programme.

North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO). Date unknown. Status of marine mammals in the North Atlantic: The ringed seal (PDF file, 63 KB). Tromsø, Norway: North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission.

Pagophilus.Org. 2001. "Harp Seal" and "Ringed Seal." Accessed July 2005.

Rothrock, D.A., Y. Yu, and G.A. Maykut. 1999. Thinning of the Arctic sea-ice cover. Geophysical Research Letters 26(23): 3,469-3,472.

Schumacher, J.D., N.A. Bond, R.D. Brodeur, P.A. Livingston, J.M. Napp, and P.J. Stabeno. 2003. Climate change in the southeastern Bering Sea and some consequences for biota. In Large marine ecosystems of the world: Trends in exploitation, protection, and research. Edited by G. Hempel and K. Sherman. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Sea Ice: Implications of changes in arctic sea ice (PDF file, 183 KB). Report from the Human Dimensions of the Arctic system online workshop, 3-7 December 2001.

Serreze, M., and R. Barry. Atmosphere-ice-ocean interactions. 2009. In The Arctic Climate Systems. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Serreze, M. Personal communication. February 2005.

Stroeve, J., M. Serreze, F. Fetterer, T. Arbetter, W. Meier, J. Maslanik, and K. Knowles. 2005. Tracking the Arctic's shrinking ice cover: another extreme minimum in 2004. Geophysical Research Letters 32(4), doi:10.1029/2004GL021810.

Exploration

Alexander, Caroline. 2001. The Endurance, Shackleton's legendary antarctic expedition. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Alexander, Caroline, 1999. Mrs. Chippy's last expedition: the remarkable journal of Shackleton's polar-bound cat. New York, NY: Perennial.

Bryce, Robert M. 1997. Cook and Peary: the polar controversy, resolved. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole.

The Endurance—Shackleton's Legendary Antarctic Expedition. 2000. Columbia Tristar Home Video.

Guttridge, Leonard F. 1986. Icebound, the Jeanette expedition's quest for the North Pole. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.

Lansing. A. 1999. Endurance: Shackleton's incredible voyage, 2nd Edition. New York, NY: Carroll & Graf.

Mulvaney, Kieran. 2001. At the ends of the earth: a history of the polar regions. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Shackleton—The Greatest Survival Story of All Time. 2002. A&E Home Video.

Shackleton, Ernest. 1999, originally published 1919. South: the story of Shackleton's last expedition, 1914-1917. Edited by Peter King. North Pomfret, VT: Trafalgar Square Publishing.

Shackleton, Ernest. 1998, originally published 1919. South: a memoir of the Endurance voyage. New York, NY: Carroll & Graf.

Ernest H. Shackleton (South-Pole.com)

The Fram (Fram Museum)

Roald Amundsen (South-Pole.com)

Robert Falcon Scott (South-Pole.com)

Virtual Shackleton