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Data Set ID:
NSIDC-0241

SMEX02 Landsat 5 and 7 Thematic Mapper Land Surface Brightness Temperatures, Version 1

This data set consists of land surface brightness temperatures derived from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+) thermal bands.

Geographic Coverage

Parameter(s):
  • Infrared Wavelengths > Brightness Temperature
Spatial Coverage:
  • N: 42.7, S: 41.7, E: -93.2, W: -93.8

Spatial Resolution:
  • 30 m x 30 m
  • 60 m x 60 m
Temporal Coverage:
  • 23 June 2002 to 17 July 2002
Temporal Resolution: Not specified
Data Format(s):
  • Binary
Platform(s) LANDSAT-5, LANDSAT-7
Sensor(s): ETM+, TM
Version: V1
Data Contributor(s): Thomas Jackson, Fuqin Li, William Kustas
Data Citation

As a condition of using these data, you must cite the use of this data set using the following citation. For more information, see our Use and Copyright Web page.

Jackson, T., F. Li, and W. Kustas. 2004. SMEX02 Landsat 5 and 7 Thematic Mapper Land Surface Brightness Temperatures, Version 1. [Indicate subset used]. Boulder, Colorado USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5067/SFENVFY5CSE5. [Date Accessed].

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Detailed Data Description

Land surface temperatures (Ts) and brightness temperatures (TBs) are key boundary conditions in many remote sensing-based land surface modeling schemes. Currently available satellite thermal infrared sensors provide data with different spatial resolutions and temporal coverage to estimate land surface temperature. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) has 4 km spatial resolution in the thermal infrared channel, while the NOAA-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the NASA Terra- and Aqua-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have 1 km spatial resolution. The Terra-Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) provides significantly higher spatial resolution at 90 m. The Landsat 5 TM has 30 m resolution, and Landsat 7 ETM+, which has 60 m resolution. However, these instruments have a repeat cycle of 16 days. Some Ts standard products are available from NOAA AVHRR and MODIS data with a 1 km resolution. These low-resolution data are limited in some applications.

As part of the SMEX02 campaign, two Landsat 5 TM scenes and three Landsat 7 ETM+ scenes were acquired during the primary study period. These data were used to produce high-resolution (30 m to 60 m) TB data sets. Users should be aware that these satellite data represent a single point in time, while ground-based estimates were taken before, during, and after the SMEX02 campaign.

The following table summarizes characteristics of the five images in this data set.

Image Specifications
File name
062302_btemp.bil
070102_btemp.bil
070802_btemp.bil
071602_btemp.bil
071702_btemp.bil
Date
2002-06-23
2002-07-01
2002-07-08
2002-07-16
2002-07-17
Time (Fractional hours in GMT)
16.4943
16.7013
16.8083
16.5887
16.694
Landsat No.
5
7
7
5
7
Path
26
26
27
27
26
Row
31
31
31
31
31
Upper-left corner (UTM, meters)
431085.000 E
4731115.000 N
431064.092 E
4731115.913 N
431085.000 E
4731115.000 N
431085.000 E
4731115.000 N
431097.084 E
4731095.389 N
Upper-right corner (UTM, meters)
486616.000 E
4731115.000 N
486624.092 E
4731115.913 N
484450.871 E
4731102.466 N
486615.000 E
4731115.000 N
486657.084 E
4731095.389 N
Lower-left corner (UTM, meters)
431085.000 E
4616185.000 N
431064.092 E
4616155.913 N
431050.871 E
4616142.466 N
431085.000 E
4616185.000 N
431097.084 E
4616195.389 N
Lower-right corner (UTM, meters)
486615.000 E
4616185.000 N
486624.092 E
4616155.913 N
484450.871 E
4616142.466 N
486615.000 E
4616185.000 N
486657.084 E
4616195.389 N
Pixel size (meters)
30
60
60
30
60
Rows
3831
1916
1916
3831
1915
Columns
1851
926
890
1851
926
Format

Brightness temperature data are unsigned integer, band-interleaved-by-line (BIL), binary values, scaled by 100. Pixel values of "0" indicate missing data. Data are in a PC byte order (little endian). SGI and Sun users should byte-swap these data before using them.

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File and Directory Structure

The HTTPS site contains five files. See the Image Specifications table above for characteristics of each file.

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File Naming Convention

File names are "ddmmyy_btemp.bil", where "dd" is the two-digit day, "mm" is the two-digit month, "yy" is the two-digit year, and "btemp" is TB.

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File Size

062002_btemp.bil: 13.850 MB
070102_btemp.bil: 3.466 MB
070802_btemp.bil: 3.331 MB
071602_btemp.bil: 13.850 MB
071702_btemp.bil: 3.464 MB

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Volume

The entire data set is 37.1 MB.

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Spatial Coverage

The Landsat data coincided with the SMEX02 experiment and were acquired over the Walnut Creek watershed in the Iowa study region. The data collectively cover the following area:

Southernmost Latitude: 41.69° N
Northernmost Latitude: 42.73° N
Westernmost Longitude: 93.84° W
Easternmost Longitude: 93.16° W

Spatial Resolution

Landsat ETM+ data have 60 m pixel resolution. The original Landsat 5 TM Level-1G data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) have a 120 m footprint, but the USGS resampled the data to 30 m spatial resolution.

Projection Description

These Landsat data are in a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 15 projection and North America (NAD83) datum.

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Temporal Coverage

The Landsat scenes in this data set were acquired on 23 June, 1 July, 8 July, 16 July, and 17 July 2002.

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Parameter or Variable

Parameter Description

Pixel values represent TBs in Kelvins, scaled by 100.

Parameter Range

Data values range from 23044 (230.44 K) to 33553 (335.33 K).

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Software and Tools

Users can read these data with any remote sensing or image processing software.

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Data Acquisition and Processing

Data Acquisition Methods

Data Source

The original TM and ETM+ radiance data from the USGS were Level-1G products, partly georegistered and radiometrically corrected. However, the data were not corrected for atmospheric effects.

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Derivation Techniques and Algorithms

Atmospheric Correction

Radiance from a satellite platform is strongly affected by the presence of the atmosphere. So, atmospheric correction is needed to convert satellite-based radiance to an estimated surface TB. The MODTRAN 4.1 radiative transfer model (Berk et al. 1998) was used to correct for atmospheric effects. See Li et al. (2004) for details of how the investigators derived land surface TBs and surface temperature data during SMEX02.

The sensor radiance (Iλ) is expressed as follows (Schmugge, Hook, and Col 1998):

Iλ = tλIλ(0) + dλ

Where,

tλ is atmospheric transmittance
Iλ(0) is the surface-leaving radiance
dλ is the spectral radiance added by the atmosphere

A TB is simply the temperature corresponding to a blackbody radiator emitting the same radiance. Radiance data can be converted into equivalent TBs as the following equation shows. The surface-leaving radiance, Iλ(0), can be expressed in terms of surface temperature in the following manner:

Iλ(0) = IλB(TB) = ελIλB(Ts) + (1 - ελ)I

Where,

ελ is the wavelength-dependent surface emmisivity
IλB(Ts) is the spectral radiance from a blackbody at surface temperature Ts
I is the downwelling sky radiance due to the atmosphere

Using MODTRAN, tλ, dλ, and I can be obtained from Landsat band response functions and radiosonde data.

Brightness Temperature Calculation

For Landsat thermal data, the investigators computed surface TBs in Kelvins for each pixel using the following equation:

TB = (k2 / ln[k1 / Iλ(0) + 1])

Where,

Iλ(0) is the integrated band radiance (Wm-2 sr-1 µm-1) from the first atmospheric correction equation above

k1 and k2 are calibration constants chosen to optimize the approximation for the band pass of the sensor. For Landsat 7, k1 is 666.09 Wm-2 sr-1 µm-1 and k2 is 1282.71 K (GSFC 2005). For Landsat 5, k1 is 607.76 Wm-2 sr-1 µm-1 and k2 is 1260.56 K (Schneider and Mauser 1996). When emissivity is known, all of the above equations can be used to estimate Ts.

Error Sources

Converting radiances to Ts and TBs involves a number of assumptions and approximations. Sensor properties represent one source of error. The calibration error is within ±0.6 K for ETM+ data obtained after December 2000, while the calibration error from TM is difficult to quantify; past studies indicate it is quite significant and requires recalibration with in situ data (Li et al. 2004).

A second source of error arises from the accuracy of water vapor measurements while using the MODTRAN atmospheric correction model. Schmugge, Hook, and Call (1998)estimate this as nominally 10%. If the target TB is 300 K, this could lead to a TB error of about 0.5 K for ETM+ data (Li et al. 2004).

A third source of error comes from estimating surface emissivity. The emissivity of the soil is relatively high at the Iowa study site, and the site is also vegetated. The investigators assumed a general emissivity of about 0.98. The emissivity error for this site should be less than 0.005, which could lead to a change of 0.2 K (ETM+ data) in the Ts when the target TB is 300 K (Li et al. 2004).

The estimated overall accuracy of the TBs is approximately 1° K when comparing tower and satellite measurements. The TM TBs were recalibrated using low-altitude aircraft measurements (Li et al. 2004). Analysis revealed that the post-calibrated TBs from ETM+ still have a 0.98° C bias when compared to tower measurements. The TBs from TM have a bias of 1.47° C when compared to tower measurements (Li et al. 2004).

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Sensor or Instrument Description

TM is a multispectral scanning radiometer carried on Landsats 4 and 5. The TM has seven spectral bands, with a spatial resolution of 30 m for most bands.

ETM+, an improved version of TM, is carried on Landsat 7. The ETM+ has eight spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 60 m for most bands.

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References and Related Publications

Contacts and Acknowledgments

Tom JacksonFuqin Li, and William Kustas
United States Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service
Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory
Beltsville, MD 20705-0000

Acknowledgments: 

This research was supported by the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua AMSR, Terrestrial Hydrology, and Global Water and Energy Cycle programs.

Document Information

DOCUMENT CREATION DATE

August 2005

DOCUMENT REVISION DATE

August 2005

DOCUMENT REVIEW DATE

August 2005

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