Technical Summary of Russian Soil Coverages and Databases

General Characteristics
Stolbovoi V., I. Savin and B. Sheremet, Land Resources of Russia CD-ROM.

Soil Carbon Pools, CO2 and CH4 Emissions
Stolbovoi V., Land Resources of Russia CD-ROM.

Soil Reference Profiles
Stolbovoi V., I. Savin, B. Sheremet and L.Kolesnikova, Land Resources of Russia CD-ROM.

Technical Description
The soil coverage presented in the CD-ROM is a generalized version of the soil map of Russia at the scale 1:2.5 million (Fridland, 1988). The generalization procedure has passed through two types of aggregation: 1) generalization of the thematic content, and 2) a generalization of the mapping units or polygon geometry.

The generalization of the thematic content mainly deals with aggregation of soil classes presented in the map legend. Frequently, the process of scaling up soil information is based on vaguely defined arguments, like the notions of their representativeness, genetic unity, structure of soil cover patterns, the purpose the aggregated product will serve, etc. The generalization applied in the study has followed the principle of maximum identity with the original map. Only soils with minor extents have been ignored. The total soils number in the original soils map is 204. The revised version contains 163.

The second aspect, a generalization of mapping units, is due to the fact that polygons occurring at a larger scale cannot always be shown on a smaller scale. In this study, the soil mapping units were generalized in accordance with traditional rules of observational cartography stating that the minimal size of a mapped polygon should not be less than 1 square centimeter (cm2). The areas of soils belonging to the deleted polygons was added to similar soil of polygons remaining on the map. When necessary, the deleted soils are included in the neighboring soil mapping unit as an associated component. The total number of distinguished polygons is 1,329.

The soil naturalness coverage was created from a series of overlays and therefore is presented as an individual coverage. For more information on this coverage, refer to the soils description.

Table Definition

Soil profiles.dbf
Soil adjusted characteristics.dbf

These databases both contain a field that links to the soil code in the soil coverage. In addition they contain lat and long coordinates allowing them to be converted into a spatial coverage. For a complete description of these databases please refer to the soil description. For a description of the attributes see below.

Coverage Definition

Coverage Data Type Fields Description
Soil Poly


database link
link to russian classification
russian soil class
full description of russian class
WRB soil class
WRB acronym
full description of WRB class
WRB acronym
FAO soil code
FAO soil class
FAO acronym
full description of FAO class
FAO acronym
US soil class
full description of US class
US acronym
Total Available Water Capacity
soil drainage
bulk density
cation exchange capacity
Methane production
Topsoil acidity
Nitrogen content
CO2 respiration
full description of russian soil class
organic carbon 30cm
organic carbon 50cm
organic carbon 100cm
organic carbon 200cm
Soil naturalness Poly impact human impact on soil

Attribute Description

Soil Database Attributes from Soil_profiles.dbf and Soil_adjusted_characteristics.dbf
1. Soil ID in a WRB system
2. Lat - northern latitude (grad)
3. Long - longitude (grad)
4. Alt - altitude (m above sea level)
5. GWL-up the upper ground water level (cm)
6. GWL-down the lower ground water level (cm)
7. D-Rock - depth to hard rock (cm)
8. D-Oth.obs - depth for root penetration (permafrost, ground water table, compacted or saline horizons, etc.)
9. PM - parent materials
10. Land Use - main land uses and covers (tundra, forest, grassland, medow, bog, pasture, cropland
11. Horizon - identification of soil horizon according to the national nomenclature
12. Depth - lower boundary of the horizon extent (cm)
13. Clay - clay content (%)
14. esd - equivalent diameter of the sphere - 1 µm (upper limit)
15. Silt - silt content (%)
16. esd - equivalent diameter of the sphere - 10 µm (upper limit)
17. Sand - content of the 1st sand fraction (%)
18. esd - equivalent diameter of the sphere - 50 µm (upper limit)
19. Sand - content of the 2nd sand fraction (%)
20. esd - equivalent diameter of the sphere - 250 µm (upper limit)
21. Sand - content of the 3rd sand fraction (%)
22. esd - equivalent diameter of the sphere - 1000 µm (upper limit)
23. Stones - content of stones (% of soil volume)
24. Soil Color - color according to the Munsell Soil Color Charts
25. Structure - soil structure
26. C - carbon content (%)
27. cod - identification of method (A3 Turin method of wet combustion; A31 - ignition loss)
28. N - nitrogen content (%)
29. cod - identification of method ( A4 wet digestion after Kjeldahl method)
30. CaCO3 - total CaCO3 content (%)
31. cod - A6 calcimeter method (%)[measures CO2 emitted]
32. AG - CaSO4*2H2O gypsum content (%)
33. cod - A10 extraction by 0.2N HCL and deduction of a mount extracted by 1:5 water solution
34. 35. pH(H2O) - acidity, pH 1:5 water solution
35. cod - method of acidity detection
36. EC - electro conductivity (dSm-1)
37. cod of the method of detection
38. ESP - content of exchangeable Na (%)
39. Ca - content of exchangeable Ca (mg-eqv/100g)
40. cod - neutral Ammonium Acetate extract
41. Mg - content of exchangeable Mg (mg-eqv/100g)
42. cod - neutral Ammonium Acetate extract
43. K - content of exchangeable K (mg-eqv/100g)
44. cod - neutral Ammonium Acetate extract
45. Na - content of exchangeable Na (mg-eqv/100g)
46. cod - neutral Ammonium Acetate extract
47. CEC - Cation Exchange Capacity (mg-eqv/100g)
48. cod - different method depending on soils (for details see Arinushkina, 1970)
49. BS - Base Saturation (%)
50. cod - ration of sum of exchangeable cations and CEC
51. TOT-POR - Total Porosity (%)
52. cod - (1 - bulk density/particle density)%
53. DB - Bulk density
54. cod - A29 - wet measurements in the field