Data Set ID: 
G10008

ClimoBase: Rouse Canadian Surface Observations of Weather, Climate, and Hydrological Variables, 1984-1998, Version 1

ClimoBase is a collection of surface climate measurements collected in Northern Canada by Dr. Wayne Rouse between 1984 and 1998 in three locations: Churchill, Manitoba; Marantz Lake, Manitoba; and Inuvik, Northwest Territories. These data are comprised of surface-climate measurements, including solar time, wind speed, wind direction, dry-bulb, wet-bulb, and vapor pressure in 24 sites focused at the three Northern Canadian locations. The sites were chosen to include a variety of terrains in the study: sedge fen wetland, willow-birch wetland, lichen-heath, bedrock boulders/heath, spruce- tamarack forest, tundra lake, creek, various (e.g. a basin: sedge, willow, lichen-heath, forest, etc.), sparse vegetation (short grass/sedge, heath spp.), and coastal marsh (tall grass, sandy soils). The measurements were taken in increments ranging from seasonally to every 15 minutes. In all, 177 different variables were measured and recorded. The data are valuable due to their unique and consistent nature.

This is the most recent version of these data.

Parameter(s):
  • Atmospheric Temperature > Surface Air Temperature > Air Temperature
  • Surface Radiative Properties > Albedo
  • Atmospheric Chemistry > Carbon and Hydrocarbon Compounds > Carbon Dioxide > Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
  • Atmospheric Pressure > Surface Pressure
  • Surface Water > Discharge/Flow
  • Atmospheric Water Vapor > Evaporation
  • Atmospheric Radiation > Heat Flux
  • Atmospheric Radiation > Net Radiation
  • Frozen Ground > Permafrost
  • Precipitation > Precipitation Amount
  • Frozen Ground > Soil Temperature
  • Water Quality/Water Chemistry > Water Temperature
Data Format(s):
  • Comma-Separated Values (.csv)
Spatial Coverage:
N: 68.736944, 
S: 58.133333, 
E: -93.816667, 
W: -133.505278
Platform(s):GROUND STATIONS, GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS
Spatial Resolution:
  • Varies
Sensor(s):CO2 ANALYZERS, DRY BULB THERMOMETERS, PRESSURE SENSORS, SOIL HEAT FLUX TRANSDUCER, SOIL TEMPERATURE PROBE, STREAM GAUGES, WET BULB THERMOMETERS, WIND PROFILERS
Temporal Coverage:
  • 14 May 1984 to 31 December 1998
Version(s):V1
Temporal ResolutionVariesMetadata XML:View Metadata Record
Data Contributor(s):National Snow and Ice Data Center.

Geographic Coverage

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FTP data can be downloaded through a Web browser or command line via FTP. For help downloading data through an FTP client, go to the How to access data using an FTP client support page.

As a condition of using these data, you must cite the use of this data set using the following citation. For more information, see our Use and Copyright Web page.

National Snow and Ice Data Center. 2014. ClimoBase: Rouse Canadian Surface Observations of Weather, Climate, and Hydrological Variables, 1984-1998, Version 1. [Indicate subset used]. Boulder, Colorado USA. NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center. doi: https://doi.org/10.7265/N5FX77CH. [Date Accessed].

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Overview

ClimoBase is a collection of surface climate measurements taken in Northern Canada by Dr. Wayne Rouse between 1984 and 1998 in three locations: Churchill, Manitoba; Marantz Lake, Manitoba; and Inuvik, Northwest Territories. ClimoBase was created to provide a central repository for Dr. Wayne Rouse's raw field data. Dr. Rouse is now Professor Emeritus at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. Dr. Rouse was considered by the Canadian Association of Geographers (CAG) to have "pioneered field research on the evaporation of high latitude sites, including woodlands, tundra, wetland and lake surfaces" (1998). He received the 1998 CAG Award for Scholarly Distinction in Geography. In 2001, Dr. Roger Barry, the Director of NSIDC at the time, received a copy of ClimoBase for NSIDC. We are publishing these data now as part of an effort to help assure the preservation of small data collections that are not part of a larger funded program, and that may receive wider use through documentation and distribution on line.

Detailed Data Description

These data are surface-climate measurements from 1984-1998, including solar time, wind speed, wind direction, dry-bulb, wet-bulb, and vapor pressure in 24 sites focused on three Northern Canada locations: Churchill, Manitoba, Marantz Lake, Manitoba, and Inuvik, Northwest Territories. The sites were chosen to include a variety of terrains in the study and were categorized into the following groups:

  • Sedge fen wetland
  • Willow-birch wetland
  • Lichen-heath
  • Bedrock boulders/Heath
  • Spruce- tamarack forest
  • Tundra lake
  • Creek
  • Various (for example, a basin with different terrains: sedge, willow, lichen-heath, forest, etc.)
  • Sparse vegetation (short grass/sedge, heath spp.)
  • Coastal marsh (tall grass, sandy soils)

The measurements were taken in increments ranging from seasonally to every 15 minutes. In all, 177 different variables were measured and recorded. The data are valuable due to their unique and consistent nature.

ClimoBase was created to provide a central repository for Dr. Wayne Rouse's raw field data. Dr. Rouse is now Professor Emeritus at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. Dr. Rouse was considered by the Canadian Association of Geographers (CAG) to have "pioneered field research on the evaporation of high latitude sites, including woodlands, tundra, wetland and lake surfaces" (1998). He received the 1998 CAG Award for Scholarly Distinction in Geography. In 2001, Dr. Roger Barry, the Director of NSIDC at the time, received a copy of ClimoBase for NSIDC. We are publishing these data now as part of an effort to help assure the preservation of small data collections that are not part of a larger funded program, and that may receive wider use through documentation and distribution on line.

Summary

ClimoBase was compiled to serve as a central repository for the data collected through the research of Dr. Wayne Rouse in Northern Canada from 1984 through 1998. The collection includes 7007 data files that list surface climate measurements collected at regular intervals, along with a user manual and README files that detail data attributes and measurement techniques.

Note: The ClimoBase Users Manual (Boudreau, 1999) contains some outdated information. It describes these data as they were in 1999 as well as how to install the original database from the data files. This newer version of the data have been reformatted into comma separated value (.csv) files for NSIDC so that they are easy to read in Excel or any text editor, so sections 2, 4, 6, and 7 of the user manual do not pertain to this data set. However, those sections do still contain valuable information about the provenance of the data. Sections 3 and 5 of the ClimoBase Users Manual do contain pertinent information and are referenced often throughout this document as a place to find specifics about site location, temporal resolution, and measurements taken.

Data Files

There are two types of data files: daily and seasonal. Daily data files mostly contain half-hourly data, however, hourly and 15-minute data also
exist for certain data sets. The seasonal data files contain discrete daily values, usually manually measured once a day (for example: water table elevation, rain gauge amounts, frost table depth, etc.).

Readme Files

There are two different types of readme files: study site overviews and data parameter descriptions. The study site overview Readme files describe the geographical location of the sites, the measurements taken, the instruments used, and the time frame that the measurements took place; there is one of these files for each site. The data parameter description Readme files describe the attributes and list the headings of each column of the data files. There is one data parameter description Readme file for each year that measurements were taken at a site. This means that all data files from a particular year and site share one common description file. Note: the data parameter description Readme files are called "control" files in the ClimoBase Users Manual (Boudreau, 1999).

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Format

Data Files

The data files are in comma separated value (.csv) format. Both the daily and seasonal data files contain columns of data by parameter separated by a comma with no headers. A data parameter descriptions Readme file describes the contents of the columns. A data file can have up to 110 different parameters. A null value means that the original value was deemed erroneous or could not be determined. See the Data Acquisition and Processing section of this document for further information on the processing of the data.

Readme Files

The study site overviews and data parameter descriptions Readme files are in text format (.txt). The study site overviews are provided in paragraph format providing a written description of the sites. The data parameter description files contain headers describing the data like year and number of parameters as well as columns of a variety of parameter codes which correspond to the parameters in the related data files. The top portion of the description Readme files describe the daily data files and the lower portion of the files, after the "DAY File Parameters" line, describe the seasonal files. A parameter code has three parts:

VVVLLUU

Where:

Table 1. Data Parameter Description Readme File Parameter Code Description
Variable Description
VVV 3-digit variable code that identifies the parameter in the specified column of the data files. See Table 5 for the codes and variables.
LL 2-digit level code. When value is greater than zero, a multi-level variable is assumed.
UU 2-digit unit code identifying the units of the parameter identified with the variable code. See Table 6 for the units and codes.

Example: In the parameter code 1370501, 137 corresponds to dry-bulb temperature, 05 is the Level, and 01 is the Unit Code, which corresponds to units of °C.

For complete details on how to interpret the data parameter description files with examples, see section 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 of the ClimoBase Users Manual (Boudreau, 1999).

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File Naming Convention

Data Files

The data files are named according to the following convention:

GGSSTTYY.ddd.csv

Where:

Table 2. File Naming Convention Description
Variable Description
GG

2-digit Geographic Location Code

GG Code Location
01 Churchill, MB
02 Marantz Lake, MB (including Waterhole Lake)
03 Inuvik, NWT
SS

2-digit Site Name Code

SS Code Site Name (unofficial) SS Code Site Name (unofficial)
01 Sedge, Site4 (1987) 13 Site2 (1987)
02 Willow 14 Site3 (1987)
03 Beach, Ridge 15 Eastern Creek Basin
04 Rocky 16 Pfrost
05 Twin Lakes (note: no files exist with this code) 17 Eddy
06 Golf Lake 18 LowTVC (lowland)
07 reserved (note: no files exist with this code) 19 Mobile Qg
08 RCT-1 20 Main (1984,1985)
09 RCT-2 21 Marantz
10 Airport (AES) (note: no files exist with this code) 22 UpTVC (upland)
11 Eastern Creek 23 Rodney
12 Site1 (1987) 24 Waterhole Lake

TT

2-digit Terrain Type Code

TT Code Terrain Type
01 Sedge fen wetland
02 Willow-birch wetland
03 Lichen-heath
04 Bedrock boulders/Heath
05 Spruce-tamarack forest
06 Tundra lake
07 Creek
08 Various (i.e. a mosaic, e.g. a basin: sedge, willow, lichen-heath, forest, etc.)
09 Sparse vegetation (short grass/sedge, heath spp.)
10 Coastal marsh (tall grass, sandy soils)
YY 2-digit year
ddd 3-digit day of year for daily files and "DAY" for seasonal files
.csv Indicates that this file is in comma separated value format
.txt Indicates that this file is in text format
Example

01080494.145.csv which translates to Churchill, MB; site RCT-1; terrain type bedrock boulders/heath; in 1994 on day 145.

Readme Files

Study Site Overview Readme Files

The overview readme files are named according to the following convention:

GGSSTT.README.txt

See Table 2 for file naming convention code descriptions.

Data Parameter Description Readme Files

The parameter description readme files are named according to the following convention:

GGSSTTYY.INI.README.txt

See Table 2 for file naming convention code descriptions.

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File and Directory Structure

Data are available on the FTP site in the ftp://sidads.colorado.edu/pub/DATASETS/NOAA/G10008/ directory. Within this top level directory is a directory for each research site, named with a site code, and within the research-site directories is a Data directory and a ReadMe directory that contain the data and the Readme files, respectively. See Table 3 and Figure 1 for further details.

File structure
Figure 1. FTP Directory Structure

Table 3. Directory Structure Description and Contents
Directory Description
GGSSTT 6-digit research site code directory name. See Table 2 for the code values.
GGSSTT/Data Contains the data files for each year that data was taken at that research site.
GGSSTT/ReadMe Contains the Readme files that describe the data files.
ClimoBase_v6_README Contains 2 Readme files. One that decodes the headers of the data files (HEADERS.prn.README.txt) and the other describes the units of the headers (UNITS.prn.README.txt). This information is also consolidated for easy reference in Table 5 and Table 6 of this document.

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File Size

The data files range in size from .5 KB to 32 KB and the Readme files range in size from 1 KB to 19 KB. The total volume of the data files and Readme files together is approximately 31 MB.

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Spatial Coverage and Resolution

These data were gathered from 24 research sites in 3 locations in Northern Canada: Churchill, Manitoba; Marantz Lake, Manitoba; and Inuvik, Northwest Territories.

The 24 locations lie within this approximate bounding box:

Southernmost Latitude: 58.13° N
Northernmost Latitude: 68.74° N 
Westernmost Longitude: 133.51° W
Easternmost Longitude: 93.82° W

Specific latitude and longitude of each site, if known, is given in Table 4.

Table 4. Site Descriptions and Dates
Site Name (unofficial) Location Lat/Lon Description Data Collection Dates Type of Data Collected
Sedge, Site4 (1987) Churchill, MB 58° 40' N, 93° 49' W A sedge-dominated fen wetland located approximately 30 km ESE of Churchill, MB, and 12 km due south of the coast of Hudson Bay. The Sedge and Site4 sites are at the same location. Prior to 1989, the site was referred to as Site4 after that it was referred to as the Sedge site.

1 June to 13 August 1987

19 June to 1 September 1989

19 June to 22 August 1990

16 June to 24 August 1991

8 June to 3 September 1992

14 June to 24 August 1993

6 June to 26 August 1994

12 June to 25 August 1995

4 June to 25 August 1996

4 June to 6 September 1997

soil temperature, temperature and humidity profiles, soil heat flux, net wave radiation
Willow Churchill, MB 58° 46' N, 93° 53' W Dwarf willow-birch forest located along a portion of the coast of Hudson Bay, 20 km east of Churchill, MB.

19 June to 24 August 1990

15 June to 23 August 1991

soil temperature, temperature and humidity profiles, soil heat flux, soil moisture
Beach, Ridge Churchill, MB 58° 44' N, 93° 53' W Upland lichen-heath terrain, 20 km east of Churchill, MB and 800 m south of Bird Cove, located on a raised beach complex and was referred to as the Ridge site in 1991 and the Beach site in 1996.

21 June to 23 August 1991

4 June to 23 August 1996

soil temperature, temperature and humidity profiles, soil heat flux, net wave radiation
Rocky Churchill, MB 58° 47' N, 93° 58' W Exposed bedrock and lichen-heath mats 13 km east of Churchill, MB located on the high bedrock bluffs near the coast of Hudson Bay, north of "Launch road" and 200 m NE of an old Department of National Defense building.

27 June to 24 August 1995

soil temperature, temperature and humidity profiles, soil heat flux, net wave radiation
Twin Lakes Churchill, MB 58° 37' N, 93° 49' W The site was a mixed conifer stand covering ~3500 ha surrounding two small lakes (locally known as the Twin Lakes). It is situated -40 km to the east of Churchill and 15 km south of the coast of Hudson Bay No files were found that contain data from this site.
Golf Lake Churchill, MB 58° 45' N, 93° 58' W Medium-sized tundra lake approximately 15 km east of Churchill, MB.

21 June to 24 August 1991

17 June to 24 August 1995

Net and reflected solar radiation and water surface temperature, soil heat flux of the bottom of the lake
RCT-1 Churchill, MB Unknown Located 400 m east of the Churchill airport control tower situated in solid Ordovician sandstone

25 May to 31 December 1994

1 January to 31 December 1995

1 January to 31 December 1996

1 January to 31 December 1997

1 January to 28 October 1998

permafrost temperatures, air temperature, and relative humidity
RCT-2 Churchill, MB Unknown sedge-dominated wetland area with hummock and hollow topography located approximately 700 m due west of the midpoint of Churchill's longest (paved) runway, just south of a gravel road along an abandoned railway spur

15 June to 31 December 1996

1 January to 31 December 1997

1 January to 31 December 1998

permafrost temperature and soil heat flux
Airport (AES) Churchill, MB 58° 44' N, 94° 04' W Churchill Airport No files were found that contain data from this site.
Eastern Creek Churchill, MB Unknown Three stream gauging stations were set up; two at the Eastern Creek sources (Willow Creek and Upper Eastern Creek), and one near the mouth of the creek where it flows under Launch Road and into Hudson Bay (Lower Eastern Creek).

12 June to 25 August 1991

11 June to 26 August 1992

17 June to 26 August 1993

16 June to 26 August 1994

water velocity and water depth
Site1 (1987) Churchill, MB Unknown Located in a coastal marsh area along the coast of Hudson Bay, near Bird Cove. The predominant vegetation was tall grasses, sedges, and reeds. 1 June to 15 August 1987 temperature (air and soil)
Site2 (1987) Churchill, MB Unknown Located in a sedge meadow several kilometers inland from the coast of Hudson Bay. 1 June to 16 August 1987 temperature (air and soil)
Site3 (1987) Churchill, MB Unknown Located in a sedge meadow 10 km inland from the coast of Hudson Bay. 1 June to 13 August 1987 temperature (air and soil)
Eastern Creek Basin Churchill, MB 58° 45' N, 93° 57' W Network of 18 stations along two transects that ran through the Eastern Creek drainage basin.

9 June to 24 August 1991

11 June to 26 August 1992

20 June to 26 August 1993

14 June to 26 August 1994

water table location and rainfall amounts
Pfrost Churchill, MB Unknown Permafrost site installed at the main Sedge site in Churchill

30 August to 31 December 1995

1 January to 26 December 1996

Permafrost temperature
Eddy Churchill, MB Unknown Eddy site setup over wet tundra, 100 m north of the present Sedge site in Churchill.

16 September to 16 October 1995

2 January to 31 December 1996

1 January to 12 February 1997

soil heat flux
LowTVC (lowland) Inuvik, NWT 68° 44' 13'' N, 133° 30' 21'' W Wetland in Trail Valley Creek, approximately 75 km NNE of Inuvik, NWT

22 May to 31 December 1996

1 January to 31 December 1997

1 January to 17 August 1998

soil heat flux, radiation, temperature (air and surface)
Mobile Qg Churchill, MB Unknown

Network of four sites with different terrain types (sedge, forest, lichen-heath, and willow-birch) in the Churchill, MB area.

Sedge: located near the main Sedge site, north of the Twin Lakes forest

Forest: located near the Twin Lakes site

Lichen: located in an extensive area of lichen mats on a raised beach ridge, 400 m north of Lindy Lake

Willow: located near the main Willow site

Sedge: 19 June to 6 July 1994

Forrest: 9 July to 25 July 1994

Lichen: 26 July to 10 August 1994

Willow: 10 August to 26 August 1994

soil heat flux
Main (1984,1985) Churchill, MB 58° 45' N, 93° 58' W Dry, well drained and sparsely vegetated terrain located 15 km east of Churchill, MB on a sandy raised beach plateau, 500 m north of Golf Lake and 300 m south of Launch road.

14 May to 21 August 1984

26 April to 19 September 1985

soil temperature, temperature and humidity profiles, soil heat flux, net wave radiation
Marantz Marantz Lake, MB 58° 8' N, 93° 59' W A peat plateau (approximately 2 m deep), covered by thick lichen mats near an abandoned military installation located near Marantz Lake in Northern Manitoba

14 May to 18 August 1984

4 June to 15 September 1985

soil temperature, temperature and humidity profiles, soil heat flux, net wave radiation
UpTVC (upland) Inuvik, NWT 68° 44' 13'' N, 133° 30' 19'' W Upland area located on the north side of Trail Valley Creek, approximately 75 km NNE of Inuvik, NWT

20 May to 31 December 1997

1 January to 17 August 1998

soil heat flux, radiation, temperature (air and surface)
Rodney Churchill, MB Unknown Permafrost site located on a raised beach ridge 1 km due south of Bird Cove, Churchill, MB

10 June to 31 December 1996

1 January to 12 February 1997

permafrost temperature and soil heat flux
Waterhole Lake Marantz Lake, MB 58° 44' N, 93° 49' W Medium-sized tundra lake in Northern Manitoba 15 June to 16 August 1985 evaporation, net radiation, heat flux, temperature
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Temporal Coverage and Resolution

The various climate measurements were taken between 1984 and 1998, generally in regular intervals ranging from seasonally to every 15 minutes, but usually half hourly, for approximately 75 to 150 consecutive days in each year. The dates that measurements were taken at each site are listed in Table 4. Detailed information of temporal coverage and resolution regarding each site location can be found in the Readme files that accompany the data files as well as in the descriptions of each site in Section 5 of the ClimoBase Users Manual (Boudreau, 1999).

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Parameters

177 different parameters dealing with surface-climate measurements are available from this data set including solar time, wind speed, wind direction, soil temperature, soil heat flux, albedo, temperature (air, water, and surface), and vapor pressure. See Table 5 for the complete list of parameters with their descriptions and units.

Parameter Description

Table 5. Parameter Description and Codes
Code Parameter Description Units
001 ALBEDO Albedo (K↑/ K↓) unitless
002 ALPHA Priestley-Taylor alpha coefficient (Qe/Qeq) unitless
003 AM32_T Reference temperature (for TC's) of AM32 multiplexer °C
004 AM416_T Reference temperature (for TC's) of AM416 multiplexer °C
005 Autowell Depth of water table (negative values=depth below surface) mm
006 AVG_MRG Average rainfall from several manual rain gauges (E. Creek Basin) mm
007 BETA Bowen ratio (Qh/Qe) unitless
008 CLD_cov Cloud cover as observed at the Churchill Weather Station tenths
009 CLD_opc Cloud opacity as observed at the Churchill Weather Station tenths
010 CO2 Mean ambient CO2 concentration ppm
011 CO2(#) Carbon Dioxide concentration at level # (1=bottom) ppm
012 CO2(Humm) Mean ambient CO2 concentration 0.10 m above a hummock ppm
013 CO2/z Mean CO2 gradient between 0.35 m and 3.2 m ppm m-1
014 CO2mV(#) Non-linear CO2 IRGA voltage at level # (1=bottom) mV
015 CR10_Batt Campbell CR10 data logger's battery voltage V
016 CS615per Period measured by the CS615 TDR (soil moisture 0 - 20 cm) ms
017 DAY Day of the month unitless
018 DEPTH Mean depth of Golf Lake (areally weighted) m
019 DIR Wind Direction °
020 DIR_SD Standard deviation of wind direction °
021 DOY Day of the year unitless
022 Dry_GT(#) Ground temperature at various levels (#) below a dry area °C
023 dS CO2 storage term g m-2 d-1
024 e Ambient vapour pressure at a reference height kPa
025 E Number of periods (48 or 24 per day) with East winds Periods d-1
026 e(#) Vapour pressure at level # (1=bottom) kPa
027 e0 Estimated surface vapour pressure (from e profile extrapolation) kPa
028 eCR7(#) Vapour pressure as computed by the CR7 logger (1984-85) kPa
029 Encl_T Insulated IRGA enclosure temperature (@ back of IRGA) °C
030 Evap Evaporation calculated from Qe and Lv (based on Tair) mm
031 FAN_Batt Voltage of the Q* fan and enclosure heater battery V
032 Fc CO2 flux after the Webb correction for Qe was applied mg m-2 s-1
033 Fc_AERO CO2 flux before the Webb corrections (calc. using wind profile) mg m-2 s-1
034 Fc_BREB CO2 flux before the Webb corrections (calc. using Kc from Qh) mg m-2 s-1
035 Fc_EC CO2 flux (eddy corr.) after the Qe Webb correction was applied mg m-2 s-1
036 Fc_ECraw Eddy correlation CO2 flux before the Webb corrections mg m-2 s-1
037 Fc_raw CO2 flux before the Webb corrections mg m-2 s-1
038 Fc_raw2 CO2 flux before the Webb corrections (post 1995) g m-2 d-1
039 Frac_JD Fractional day of year expressed as DOY + a decimal fraction unitless
040 FT Frost table depth as estimated by the zero degree isotherm m
041 FT_man Frost table depth as estimated by manual probing m
042 GT(#) Ground temperature at level # (1=closest to surface) °C
043 GTlg(#) Ground temperature at the Sedge site long sensor rod (2.25 m) °C
044 GTsh(#) Ground temperature at the Sedge site short sensor rod (0.90 m) °C
045 H20% CS615 TDR volumetric soil water content (m3 m-3 X 100%) %
046 HEIGHT Height of the balloon sonde above the surface (±5 m) m
047 Holl_GT(#) Ground temperature at various levels (#) below a hollow °C
048 Holl_H20% Volumetric soil water content (m3 m-3×100%) beneath a hollow %
049 HR (CST) Central Standard Time (Churchill, MB). Format: hh:mm hh:mm
050 HR (GMT) Greenwich Mean Time (Universal Co-ordinated Time) hh:mm
051 HR (MST) Mountain Standard Time (Inuvik, NWT) hh:mm
052 HR (Solar) Solar hour for longitude of site hh:mm
053 HT(#) Instrument height of each level (#=1-3) above Golf L. surface m
054 Humm_GT(#) Ground temperature at various levels (#) below a hummock °C
055 Humm_H20% Volumetric soil water content (m3 m-3×100%) beneath a hummock %
056 In_Temp Inflow temperature of CO2 sample at IRGA °C
057 IRGA_T Optical bench temperature (exterior) in the IRGA °C
058 K↑ Reflected solar radiation flux density W m-2
059 K↓ Incoming solar radiation flux density W m-2
060 Kh Turbulent transfer coefficient for sensible heat (eddy conductivity) m2 s-1
061 L↓ Incoming long-wave radiation flux density (pyrgeometer) W m-2
062 L↓_TEMP Internal temperature of the pyrgeometer (used for correction) °C
063 LATERAL Lateral winds: (>270° and <315°) OR (>70° and <136°) (SECTOR #3)
064 LEC_Q Discharge at the Lower Eastern Creek gauging station m3 s-1
065 LOG_Batt Campbell data logger's battery voltage V
066 Lv_CO2 Levels used for CO2 concentration profile (#=used, 0=not) unitless
067 Lv_TEMP Levels used for temperature (dry-bulb) profile (#=used, 0=not) unitless
068 Lv_VAP Levels used for vapour pressure (wet-bulb) profile (#=used, 0=not) unitless
069 Lv_WIND Levels used for horizontal wind profile (#=used, 0=not) unitless
070 Mesic_GT(#) Ground temperature at various levels (#) below a moist area °C
071 MN Month unitless
072 MRG_Avg Rainfall from a manual rain gauge (when it fell; partitioned w/TB) mm d-1
073 MRG_Rain Rainfall recorded by a manual rain gauge mm d-1
074 N Number of periods (48 or 24 per day) with North winds Periods d-1
075 NE Number of periods (48 or 24 per day) with Northeast winds Periods d-1
076 NEE Net ecosystem exchange (analogous to Fc, except includes dS) g m-2 d-1
077 NW Number of periods (48 or 24 per day) with Northwest winds Periods d-1
078 OFFSHORE # periods of offshore winds: >=136° and <=270° (SECTOR #2) unitless
079 ONSHORE # periods of onshore winds: >=315° or <=70° (SECTOR #1) unitless
080 Out_Temp Outflow temperature of CO2 sample at IRGA °C
081 Pa Atmospheric pressure kPa
082 PAR↓ Incoming photosynthetically-active radiation μmol mol-1
083 PAR↑ Reflected photosynthetically-active radiation μmol mol-1
084 PRECIP Total precipitation (rainfall and snow water equivalent) mm
085 Q* Net all-wave radiation flux density W m-2
086 Q*(mV) Net all-wave radiation (before use of calibration multiplier) mV
087 Qb_Grd Heat flux through lake bottom sediments based on temp. gradient W m-2
088 Qb_Plt Heat flux through lake bottom sediments using a heat flux plate W m-2
089 Qe Definitive latent heat flux form the BREB and AERO methods W m-2
090 Qe_AERO Latent heat flux calculated from the Aerodynamic ratio method W m-2
091 Qe_BREB Latent heat flux calculated from the Bowen ratio method W m-2
092 QE_calc Latent heat flux calculated as a residual (Qe=Q*-Qg-Qh_EC) W m-2
093 Qeq Equilibrium evaporation W m-2
094 Qg Ground (soil) heat flux density W m-2
095 QgFlat Flat ground heat flux plate W m-2
096 QgHeath Heath ground heat flux plate W m-2
097 QgHoll Hollow ground heat flux plate W m-2
098 QgHumm Hummock ground heat flux plate W m-2
099 QgLich Lichen ground heat flux plate W m-2
100 QgPlt (Canopy) Ground heat flux plate below the willow canopy W m-2
101 QgPlt (Dry) Dry ground heat flux plate W m-2
102 QgPlt (Mesic) Moist ground heat flux plate W m-2
103 QgPlt (Open) Ground heat flux plate in an open, C. aquatilis-covered area W m-2
104 QgPlt(#) Soil heat flux plate (# indicates one of several) W m-2
105 QgPlt_AVG Average heat flux plate value (weighted average of several T.U.) W m-2
106 QgPool Wet ground heat flux plate in an ephemeral pool W m-2
107 QgWill Willow ground heat flux plate W m-2
108 Qh Definitive sensible heat flux form the BREB and AERO methods W m-2
109 Qh_AERO Sensible heat flux calculated from the Aerodynamic method W m-2
110 Qh_BREB Sensible heat flux calculated from the Bowen ratio method W m-2
111 Qh_EC Sensible heat flux measured with the eddy correlation technique W m-2
112 QHnw Sensible heat flux from eddy cor. system on NW side of tower W m-2
113 QHse Sensible heat flux from eddy cor. system on SE side of tower W m-2
114 Qs Total heat storage for twin Lakes forest (Qg+canopy?) W m-2
115 Qw Heat storage in a water volume (Golf Lake). ½-hr. computation W m-2
116 Qw_Grd Heat storage in a water volume based on Qw water+Qb_Grd W m-2
117 Qw_Plt Heat storage in a water volume based on Qw water+Qb_Plt W m-2
118 Qw_Ts Heat storage in a water volume based only on surface temp, TsGolf W m-2
119 Qw1.5 Heat storage in a water volume (Golf Lake). 1.5 hr. running mean W m-2
120 Qw2.5 Heat storage in a water volume (Golf Lake). 2.5 hr. running mean W m-2
121 RG(#) Rainfall recorded by a gauge (#=1-18) in the Eastern Creek basin mm d-1
122 RH Relative humidity %
123 Ri Richardson stability index unitless
124 RO Runoff from the Eastern Creek drainage basin, RO=LEC-(UEC+Will) m3 s-1
125 S Number of periods (48 or 24 per day) with South winds Periods d-1
126 SE Number of periods (48 or 24 per day) with Southeast winds Periods d-1
127 SECTOR Wind direction sector (1=Onshore, 2=Offshore, 3=Lateral) unitless
128 SNOW Snowfall accumulation cm
129 Stg_LEC Stage (water depth) at the Lower Eastern Creek gauging station m
130 Stg_UEC Stage (water depth) at the Upper Eastern Creek gauging station m
131 Stg_Willow Stage (water depth) at the Willow Creek gauging station m
132 SW Number of periods (48 or 24 per day) with Southwest winds Periods d-1
133 T_LOG Campbell data logger's panel temperature °C
134 T0 Estimated surface temperature (from T profile extrapolation) °C
135 Tair Ambient air temperature at a reference height (3.2 m) °C
136 TB_Rain Rainfall recorded by a tipping bucket rain gauge mm
137 Td(#) Psychrometer dry-bulb temperature at level # (1=bottom) °C
138 Therm(#) Soil temperature at level (#) as measured manually by thermistors °C
139 ThermHR Solar time at which the thermistors were measured hh:mm
140 TIME (solar) Solar time in the format hh:mm:ss unitless
141 Tpool(#) Temperature of a small ephemeral pool °C
142 Tpot. Potential temperature (adjusted with the DALR=0.0098 °C m-1) K
143 Ts(#) Surface temperature of a certain terrain type °C
144 Ts_AVG Average surface temperature based on several terrain types °C
145 Tsea Ocean temperature (flooded tidal flats) near Half-Way Point °C
146 Tsed Temperature of the lake bottom sediment (in gycha) <-sp.? °C
147 TsFlat Surface temperature on flat ground °C
148 TsGolf Surface temperature of Golf lake °C
149 TsHoll Surface temperature in a hollow °C
150 TsHumm Surface temperature on a hummock °C
151 TsLich Surface temperature of lichen °C
152 Tsoil Soil temperature from psychrometer reference plug (7-10cm deep) °C
153 Tsurf (Driest) Driest ground surface temperature °C
154 Tsurf (Dry) Dry ground surface temperature °C
155 Tsurf (Mesic) Moist ground surface temperature °C
156 Tsurf (Wet) Wet ground surface temperature °C
157 Tsurf (Wettest) Wettest ground surface temperature °C
158 Tsurf Soil surface temperature °C
159 TsWill Surface temperature under willows °C
160 Tw(#) Psychrometer wet-bulb temperature at level # (1=bottom) °C
161 Twater(#) Water temperature at level # (1=closest to surface) in a lake °C
162 u Ambient horizontal wind speed at a reference height m s-1
163 u(#) Anemometer horizontal wind speed at level # (1=bottom) m s-1
164 u* Friction velocity m s-1
165 u_SD Standard deviation of wind speed m s-1
166 UEC_Q Discharge at the Upper Eastern Creek gauging station m3 s-1
167 VPD Ambient vapour pressure deficit at a reference height kPa
168 VPD(#) Vapour pressure deficit at level # (1=bottom) kPa
169 W Number of periods (max. 48 or 24 per day) with West winds Periods d-1
170 WEBB Webb correction for Qe and Qh combined (used after 1995) g m-2 d-1
171 Wet_GT(#) Ground temperature at various levels (#) below a wet area °C
172 Willow_Q Discharge at the Willow Creek gauging station m3 s-1
173 WT Water table level relative to the surface where the well is m
174 WT(#) Water table depth at wells in the Eastern Creek basin (#=1-18) m
175 wTprime (w'T') Fluctuation of vertical wind and temp. about their means m s-1 °C
176 YR Year unitless
177 z0 Surface roughness m
Table 6. Unit and Codes for Readme Files
Code Units Code Units
01 °C 16 m s-1 °C
02 K 17 mm d-1
03 kPa 18 RESERVED
04 mm 19 Periods d-1
05 cm 20 mV
06 m 21 V
07 ppm 22 RESERVED
08 W m-2 23 ms
09 μmol mol-1 24 hh:mm
10 ppm m-1 25 RESERVED
11 m s-1 26 Tenths
12 m2 s-1 27 Degrees
13 m3 s-1 28 %
14 g m-2 d-1 29 RESERVED
15 mg m-2 s-1
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Data Acquisition and Processing

These data were originally measured and collected via ground stations coordinated by Dr. Wayne Rouse from 1984 to 1998 and then compiled into a database in 1999 so that there was a central repository to house the data. NSIDC received a CD-ROM containing the data as well as ancillary information in 2001. In 2013, Katie Schmitt, of the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, worked on the collection. Ms. Schmitt migrated the original binary data files, written in a format meant to be used by FORTRAN-77 processing code, to text files (CSV and TXT) so that the data might be more readily used by scientific researchers. She did this as part of a course on the Foundations of Data Curation taught by NSIDC's Ruth Duerr. Ms. Schmitt also provided NSIDC with documentation based on information from the ClimoBase Users Manual (Boudreau, 1999).

Updating the data for publication included replacing space delimiters with commas and cleaning the data by replacing erroneous data, previously flagged -6999, with the term NULL. Data that were merged in the original files were separated with commas when the original value could be determined. If the value could not be determined, the data were replaced with NULL. This occurred in a few instances when data appeared in the binary files in a format such as "0.457.3467.1223.", and we could not find information that would allow interpreting these values as measurements. The readme files were migrated to a plain text format, but the content was not changed. Here is a summary of steps taken:

  • Open the data files and replace all of the space delimiters with commas, then save them as .csv
  • Separate any merged data such as '+6.879+2.987' or '56.789-3.42,' with a comma before the second '+' or '-' sign
  • Replace any merged data with multiple decimal points ('36.4226.769.5') with the accurate number of NULL values
  • Replace and data that was flagged missing or erroneous, previously flagged with -6999, with NULL

In 2014, these data were added to the NOAA@NSIDC collection at NSIDC.

Sensor or Instrument Description

The measurements for this data set were taken at 24 different ground stations using energy balance sensors such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed sensors; net radiometers, and heat flux plates to name a few. The details of each sensor can be found in Section 5 of the CllimoBase Users Manual (Boudreau, 1999) which lists published papers that can be referenced for specific instrumentation information at each ground station.

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Quality Assessment

The ClimoBase Users Manual states that "these data originated from many different sources and required varying levels of rescue, their quality cannot be guaranteed. Most of the data in ClimoBase has gone through at least a basic level of automated batch quality control and the majority is believed to be of high quality, however, the onus is on the user to conduct their own due diligence by carefully scrutinizing the data they extract from ClimoBase. During the batch QC process, highly suspicious or irregular data have been flagged as bad/missing... On the other hand, extreme values that could not be readily discounted by available information were normally left intact and their use will be left up to the user’s discretion" (Boudreau, 1999, p. 6).

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References and Related Publications

Contacts and Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments: 

We thank Dr. Wayne Rouse for his commitment to data stewardship and sharing.

Katie Schmit's curation work on these data was arranged by Ruth Duerr and Florence Fetterer.

NOAA NESDIS NGDC supported the publication of these data through its funding for NOAA@NSIDC.

Document Information

Document Authors

This documentation was prepared by Katie Schmitt based on information in correspondence with Florence Fetterer and the NSIDC staff and on the ClimoBase Users Manual (Boudreau, 1999). The document was edited and finalized for publication by Ann Windnagel. 

Document Creation Date

June 2014

No technical references available for this data set.
No FAQs or How Tos available for this data set.

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Questions? Please contact:
NSIDC User Services
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