When scientists talk about the cryosphere, they mean the places on Earth where water is in its solid form, frozen into ice or snow. Read more ...
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a hard snow surface lying upon a softer layer; may be formed by sun, rain or wind, and is described as breakable crust or unbreakable crust, depending upon wether it will break under the weight of a turning skier.
a method to determine the short-term strength of rocks; conducted by employing a constant loading rate until failure; the failure load is used to calculate the failure stress; can also be used to determine the elastic constants of rocks (i.e. Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio).