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moraine shoal

glacial moraine that has formed a shallow place in water.


a nearly vertical channel in ice that is formed by flowing water; usually found after a relatively flat section of glacier in a region of transverse crevasses; also called a pothole.

mountain glacier

a glacier that is confined by surrounding mountain terrain; also called an alpine glacier.
Muddy River Glacier carves its way through forested mountains near Frederick Sound in southeast Alaska. Typical of mountain glaciers, it is constrained on all sides by mountainous terrain. (Photo courtesy of the U. S. Navy, archived at the World Data Center for Glaciology, Boulder, CO.)

mountain permafrost

permafrost existing at high altitudes in high, middle, and low latitudes.

mountain wind

a cold wind blowing down an incline; a kind of katabatic wind.

mud circle

a type of nonsorted circle developed in fine-grained materials.

multiple retrogressive slide

a type of mass movement associated with shear failure in unfrozen sediments underlying permafrost, leading to detachment of blocks of frozen ground that move downslope.

multiyear ice

ice that has survived at least one melt season; it is typically 2 to 4 meters (6.6 to 13.1 feet) thick and thickens as more ice grows on its underside.
Multiyear ice. (Photo courtesy of Ted Maksym, United States Naval Academy.)