sea ice

ice canopy

pack ice from the point of view of the submariner.
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ice cake

a floe smaller than 20 meters (66 feet) across.
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hummocking

[sea ice] pressure process by which floating ice becomes broken up into hummocks.
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hummock

(1) [sea ice] a smooth hill of ice that forms on the sea ice surface from eroding ridges, particularly during the summer melt; the formation of hummocks is similar to young mountain peaks with steep slopes that erode into smooth, rolling hills. (2) [frozen ground] Small lumps of soil pushed up by frost action, often found in uniformly spaced in large groups. Hummocks can form in areas of permafrost or seasonally frozen ground, and are one of the most common surface features of the Arctic.
Hummocks make the sea ice surface appear as rolling hills. (Photo courtesy of Ted Maksym, United States Naval Academy.)

hostile ice

from the point of view of the submariner, an ice canopy containing no large ice skylights or other features which permit a submarine to surface.
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grey-white ice

a category of young ice 15 to 30 centimeters (6 to 12 inches) thick, named for its color.
Thin grey-white ice showing the effects of ridging and rafting. (Photo courtesy of the Antarctic Sea-Ice Processes and Climate program (ASPeCt).)
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grease ice

a very thin, soupy layer of frazil crystals clumped together, which makes the ocean surface resemble an oil slick.
Grease ice (thin, light-grey area) with thick ice floes. (Photo courtesy of Ted Maksym, United States Naval Academy.)
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frost flowers

crystals of ice that form when water vapor becomes a solid (bypassing the liquid phase) and deposits itself on the sea ice surface; frost flowers roughen the surface and dramatically affect its electromagnetic signal.
Close-up view of frost flowers. (Photo courtesy of Don Perovich, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.)
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friendly ice

from the point of view of the submariner, an icey canopy containing many large ice skylights or other features which permit a submarine to surface; there must be more than ten such features per 37 kilometers (30 nautical miles) along the submarine's track.
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frazil ice

fine spicules or plates of ice in suspension in water.
Frazil crystals. (Photo courtesy of Don Perovich, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.)
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