sea ice

ice keel

from the point of view of the submariner, a downward-projecting ridge on the underside of the ice canopy; the counterpart of a ridge; ice keels may extend as much as 50 meters (55 yards) below sea level.

ice jam

an accumulation of broken river or sea ice caught in a narrow channel.

ice floe

a cohesive sheet of ice floating in the water; the sea ice cover is made up of conglomerates of floes; ice floes are not unique to sea ice, as they also occur in rivers and lakes.
Aerial view of ice floes.

ice extent

the total area covered by some amount of ice, including open water between ice floes; ice extent is typically reported in square kilometers.

ice edge

the boundary at any given time between open water and sea, river or lake ice of any kind, whether drifting or fast; may be termed compacted when it is clear-cut, or open when it forms the indefinite edge of an area of dispersed ice.
Aerial view of the sea ice edge. (Photo courtesy of Todd Arbetter, National Snow and Ice Data Center.)

ice concentration

the fraction of an area that is covered by sea ice.

ice cluster

a concentration of sea ice, covering 100's of square kilometers, which is found in the same region every summer.

ice canopy

pack ice from the point of view of the submariner.

ice cake

a floe smaller than 20 meters (66 feet) across.


[sea ice] pressure process by which floating ice becomes broken up into hummocks.


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