sea ice

pancake ice

pieces of new ice approximately circular, up to 10 centimeters (4 inches) thick and 0.03 to 3 meters (0.1 to 9.8 feet) in diameter, with raised edges that form from rubbing against each other; formed from the freezing together of grease ice, slush or shuga, or the reaking up of ice rind or nilas.
(Photo courtesy of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Department of Commerce.)
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pack ice

ice that is not attached to the shoreline and drifts in response to winds, currents, and other forces; some prefer the generic term drift ice, and reserve pack ice to mean drift ice that is closely packed.
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open water

a large area of freely navigable water in which floes may be present in concentration under 1/10th; if there is no sea ice present, the area may be termed open water, even though icebergs are present.
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open pack ice

composed of floes seldom in contact and with many leads; ice cover 4/10ths to 6/10ths.
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open lead

a lead that connects two open bodies of water; ships can traverse between them through this lead; it also refers to a lead where open water is found, or a lead that has not completely frozen.
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old ice

sea ice more than 2-years-old, up to 3 meters (10 feet) or more thick; hummocks on old ice are even smoother than in second-year ice, and the ice is almost salt-free; when old ice is bare of snow, it is blue and lacks the greenish tint of second-year ice.
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nip

ice is said to nip when it forcibly presses against a ship which is beset; a vessel so caught, though undamaged, is said to have been nipped.
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nilas

a thin sheet of smooth, level ice less than 10 centimeters (4 inches) thick; appear darkest when thin.
Nilas are the dark sheets of ice near the bottom of the photo. (Photo courtesy of Ted Maksym, United States Naval Academy.)
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new ice

a general category of ice that consists of frazil, grease ice, slush, and shuga.
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multiyear ice

ice that has survived at least one melt season; it is typically 2 to 4 meters (6.6 to 13.1 feet) thick and thickens as more ice grows on its underside.
Multiyear ice. (Photo courtesy of Ted Maksym, United States Naval Academy.)
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