sea ice

ridge ice

piled ice formed by ridging.
Ridged sea ice. (Photo courtesy of Don Perovich, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.)
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recurring polynya

irregularly shaped areas of persistent open water that are sustained by winds or ocean heat; they often occur near coasts, fast ice, or ice shelves.
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ram

a horizontal underwater projection of ice from an ice front, ice wall, iceberg or floe.
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rafting

a process by which currents or winds push around thin ice so they slide over each other; also called finger rafting.
Nilas showing finger rafting. (Photo courtesy of the Antarctic Sea-Ice Processes and Climate program (ASPeCt).)
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rafted ice

deformed sea ice in which one piece has overridden another; also called telescoped ice.
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pressure ridge

process that occurs when wind, ocean currents, and other forces push sea ice around into piles that rise and form small mountains above the level sea ice surface; ridges are initially thin and transparent with very sharp edges from blocks of ice piling up; also see keels.
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pressure ice

a general term for floating ice which has been squeezed together and in places forced upwards; includes rafted ice, telescoped ice, hummocked ice and ridge ice.
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polynya

irregularly shaped areas of persistent open water that are sustained by winds or ocean heat; they often occur near coasts, fast ice, or ice shelves.
Satellite view of polynyas (dark areas) near Oates Coast, Antarctica (solid white area at bottom of photo). (Photo courtesy of NASA.)
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permanent ice zone

a region that is covered with sea ice year-round; most of the sea ice in the permanent ice zone is multiyear ice, but younger ice and open water may still be present; the permanent ice zone is what remains in summer after all melting has occurred (often called the summer minimum extent).
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patch

a collection of pack ice, less than 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) across, whose limits can be seen from the masthead.
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