dump moraine

a mound or layer of moraine formed along the edge of a glacier by rock that falls off the ice; sometimes called a ground moraine.


remnant elongated hills formed by historical glacial action; it is not clear exactly how they are formed and why they form only in some glaciated regions.
Drumlin field. Manitoba, Canada.

drift glacier

a semipermanent mass of firn formed by drifted snow behind obstructions or in the ground; also called a catchment glacier or a snowdrift glacier.

drain channel

preferred path for meltwater to flow from the surface through a snow cover.

dirt cone

a cone-shaped formation of ice that is covered by dirt; a dirt cone is caused by a differential pattern of ablation between the dirt covered surface and bare ice.

destructive metamorphism

snow metamorphism that rounds the comers and edges of an ice crystal.

depth hoar

a kind of hoarfrost; ice crystals that develop by sublimation within a layer of dry snow; characterized by rapid recrystallization, usually caused by large temperature gradients; similar in physical origin to crevasse hoar; crystals are faceted, rather than rounded.

dead ice

any part of a glacier which has ceased to flow; dead ice is usually covered with moraine.

crevasse hoar

a kind of hoarfrost; ice crystals that develop by sublimation in glacial crevasses and in other cavities with cooled space and calm, still conditions under which water vapor can accumulate; physical origin is similar to depth hoar.


open fissure in the glacier surface.
Explorers examine a crevasse on Lyman Glacier in 1916. (Photo courtesy of the United States Forest Service. Archived at the World Data Center for Glaciology, Boulder, CO.)


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