glaciers

geyser

fountain that develops when water from a conduit is forced up to the surface of a glacier; also called a negative mill.
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free water

free water is that portion of the pore water that is free to move between interconnected pores under the influence of gravity.
Free water at the base of Dirt Glacier, British Columbia, in 1904. (Photo courtesy of C.W. Wright. Archived at the World Data Center for Glaciology, Boulder, CO.)

forel stripes

shallow, parallel grooves on the face of a large melting ice crystal.
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forbes bands

alternate bands of light and dark on a glacier; usually found below steep narrow icefalls and thought to be the result of different flow and ablation rates between summer and winter.
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foliation

layering in glacier ice that has distinctive crystal sizes and/or bubbles; foliation is usually caused by stress and deformation that a glacier experiences as it flows over complex terrain, but can also originate as a sedimentary feature.
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flow finger

a small percolation channel that is a beginning path for surface meltwater through snow or firn.
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fjord

glacial troughs that fill with sea water.
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firnspiegel

a thin sheet of ice formed on the glacier surface by rapid refreezing of solar-heated snow or firn, usually at high elevations during spring.
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firn water table

the height of meltwater within saturated firn that is trapped over ice in a glacier.
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firn line

the minimum elevation of firn lying on a glacier surface; each year's firn line marks a glacier's annual equilibrium line; also called firn limit.
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