frozen ground or permafrost

surface cryogenic fabric

a distinct soil micromorphology, resulting from the effects of freezing and thawing processes, in which coarser soil particles have vertical or near-vertical orientation.

suprapermafrost water

water occurring in unfrozen ground above perennially frozen ground.


cooling of a liquid to a temperature below its freezing point, without causing solidification.

subsea talik

a layer or body of unfrozen ground beneath the seabottom, and forming part of the subsea permafrost.

subsea permafrost

permafrost occurring beneath the sea bottom.

subpermafrost water

water occurring in the noncryotic ground below the permafrost.

sublimation ice

ice formed by reverse sublimation of water vapour on cold surfaces.

subglacial talik

a layer or body of unfrozen ground beneath a glacier in an area with permafrost.

subglacial permafrost

permafrost beneath a glacier.

string fen

a peatland with roughly parallel narrow ridges of peat dominated by fenland vegetation interspersed with slight depressions, many of which contain shallow pools.


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