frozen ground or permafrost

closed-system freezing

freezing that occurs under conditions that preclude the gain or loss of any water by the system.

closed talik

a layer or body of unfrozen ground occupying a depression in the permafrost table below a lake or river.

close cavity ice

ice formed in a closed space, cavity or cave in permafrost.

cave ice

ice formed in a closed or open cave.

buried ice

ice formed or deposited on the ground surface and later covered by sediments.

BTS method

method to predict the presence or absence of permafrost in a mountain area, using measurements of the bottom temperature of snow cover mid- to late-winter.

bottom temperature of snow cover

temperature measured at the base of the snow cover during mid- to late-winter (February/March).

block field

a surficial layer of angular shattered rocks formed in either modern or pleistocene periglacial environments.

apparent heat capacity

the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of frozen ground by one degree.


hard-packed rock lying below the Earth’s surface; lies in beds or layers; can be variable across geographic space; above bedrock is a layer of broken, weathered rock.


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