frozen ground or permafrost

creep strength

the failure strength of a material at a given strain rate or after a given period under deviatoric stress.

creep of frozen ground

the slow deformation (or time-dependent shear strain) that results from long-term application of a stress too small to produce failure in the frozen material.

continuous permafrost zone

the major subdivision of a permafrost region in which permafrost occurs everywhere beneath the exposed land surface with the exception of widely scattered sites.

continuous permafrost

geographic area in which permafrost occurs everywhere beneath the exposed land surface with the exception of widely scattered sites, such as newly deposited unconsolidated sediments that have just been exposed to the freezing climate; mean annual soil surface temperatures are typically below -5 degrees Celsius (23 degrees Fahrenheit).

construction methods in permafrost

special design and construction procedures required when engineering works are undertaken in permafrost areas.

conglomeric cryogenic fabric

a distinct soil micromorphology, resulting from the effects of freezing and thawing processes, in which coarser soil particles form compound arrangements.

composite wedge

a wedge showing evidence of both primary and secondary filling.

collapse scar

that portion of a peatland where the whole or part of a palsa or peat plateau has thawed and collapsed to the level of the surrounding peatland.

coefficient of compressibility

decrease in volume per unit volume of a substance resulting from a unit increase in pressure, under isothermic conditions.

closed-system pingo

a pingo formed by doming of frozen ground due to freezing of injected water supplied by expulsion of pore water during permafrost aggradation in the closed talik under a former water body.

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