frozen ground or permafrost


the process through which cryoplanation terraces form.


a layer of unfrozen ground that is perennially cryotic (forming part of the permafrost), in which freezing is prevented by freezing-point depression due to the dissolved-solids content of the pore water.


the study of soils at temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius, with particular reference to soils subject to intensive frost action, and to soils overlying permafrost.


the study of the genesis, structure and lithology of frozen earth materials.

cryogenic temperature

in international materials science, this term refers to temperatures generally below -50 degrees Celsius, but usually to temperatures within a few degrees of absolute zero (-273 degrees Celsius).

cryogenic fabric

the distinct soil micromorphology resulting from the effects of freezing and thawing processes.

cryogenic aquiclude

a layer of ground which, because of its frozen state, has a low enough permeability to act as a confining bed for an aquifer.


the combination of thermophysical, physico-chemical and physico-mechanical processes occurring in freezing, frozen and thawing earth materials.


the boundary between cryotic and noncryotic ground as indicated by the position of the 0 degrees Celsius isotherm in the ground.

crust-like cryostructure

the cryostructure of a frozen deposit of angular blocks that are coated with ice, whereas large spaces between the blocks are not filled with ice.


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