frozen ground or permafrost

frost phenomena

effects of frost action on earth materials and on structures placed in or on the ground.

frost penetration

the movement of the freezing front into the ground during freezing.

frost mound

any mound-shaped landform produced by ground freezing combined with accumulation of ground ice due to groundwater movement or the migration of soil moisture.

frost jacking

cumulative upward displacement of objects embedded in the ground, caused by frost action.

frost heave extent

the difference between the elevations of the ground surface before and after the occurrence of frost heave.

frost heave

the upward or outward movement of the ground surface (or objects on, or in, the ground) caused by the formation of ice in the soil.

frost creep

the net downslope displacement that occurs when a soil, during a freeze-thaw cycle, expands normal (perpendicular) to the ground surface and settles in a nearly vertical direction.

frost bulb

a more or less symmetrical zone of frozen ground formed around a buried chilled pipeline or beneath or around a structure maintained at temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius.

frost boil

a small mound of soil material, presumed to have been formed by frost action.

frost blister

a seasonal frost mound produced through doming of seasonally frozen ground by a subsurface accumulation of water under elevated hydraulic potential during progressive freezing of the active layer.

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