frozen ground or permafrost

pingo ice

massive ice forming the core of a pingo.

permafrost zone

a major subdivision of a permafrost region.

permafrost thickness

the vertical distance between the permafrost table and the permafrost base.

permafrost table

the upper boundary surface of permafrost.

permafrost region

a region in which the temperature of some or all of the ground below the seasonally freezing and thawing layer remains continuously at or below 0 degrees Celsius for at least two consecutive years.

permafrost limit

outermost (latitudinal) or lowest (altitudinal) limit of the occurrence of permafrost.

permafrost degradation

a naturally or artificially caused decrease in the thickness and/or areal extent of permafrost.

permafrost boundary

(1) the geographical boundary between the continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones (2) the margin of a discrete body of permafrost.

permafrost base

the lower boundary surface of permafrost, above which temperatures are perennially below 0 degrees Celsius (cryotic) and below which temperatures are perennially above 0 degrees Celsius (noncryotic).

permafrost aggradation

a naturally or artificially caused increase in the thickness and/or areal extent of permafrost.

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