climatology and meteorology

steering flow

in meteorology, a basic fluid flow which exerts a strong influence upon the direction of movement of disturbances embedded in it; in the atmosphere, it is usually an air flow in the middle or upper troposphere which govern directions of the disturbances at low levels.

station pressure

atmospheric pressure observed at a station.

stable air mass

air mass having static stability in its lower layers; it is free from convection, has a low degree of turbulence and may have stratiform clouds or fog, or no clouds.

spring equinox

either of the two points of intersection of the sun's apparent annual path and the plane of the earth's equator; in the northern hemisphere, the spring (vernal) equinox falls on or about 21 March, and the autumnal equinox on or about 22 September.

specific humidity

the mass of water vapor per unit mass of air, including the water vapor (usually expressed as grams of water vapor per kilogram of air).


the point in time when the vertical rays of the sun are striking either the Tropic of Cancer (23 degrees, 30 minutes N, the summer solstice in the northern hemisphere) or the Tropic of Capricorn (23 degrees, 30 minutes S, the winter solstice in the northern hemisphere); represents the longest or shortest day of the year; in the northern hemisphere, the summer solstice falls on or about 21 June, and the winter solstice on or about 22 December.

solar radiation

the total electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun.

steam fog

evaporation fog formed when water vapor is added to air which is much colder than the vapor's source; most commonly, when very cold air drifts across relatively warm water; also called sea smoke.


strong wind with snow.


a bright white glare on the underside of clouds, produced by the reflection of light from a snow-covered surface; snowblink is lighter than ice blink, and much lighter than land sky or water sky.


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