climatology and meteorology


a physical quantity characterizing the mean random motion of molecules in a physical body; in other words, it is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a substance.


the scale of the high- and low-pressure systems of the lower atmosphere; dimensions typically range from 1000 to 2500 kilometers (620 to 1550 miles; synoptic-scale circulation).

synoptic weather observation

an observation made at periodic times (usually at 3-hour and 6-hour intervals specified by the World Meteorological Organization) of sky cover, state of the sky, cloud height, atmospheric pressure at sea level, temperature, dew point, wind speed and direction, amount of precipitation, hydrometeors and lithometeors, and special phenomena that prevail at the time of the observation or observed since the previous specified observation.

synoptic meteorology

the study and analysis of synoptic weather information (synoptic charts, synoptic weather observations); thus, it is a study of macro-scale atmospheric processes, as well as weather prediction based on results of synoptic studies.

synoptic hour

hour (UTC - Coordinated Universal Time) determined by international agreement at which meteorological observations are made simultaneously throughout the world; the primary synoptic hours are every six hours, commencing at 00:00 UTC.

synoptic code

a code approved by the World Meteorological Organization, by which meteorological elements observed at the earth's surface at synoptic times are encoded in groups of five figures and transmitted internationally through the GTS (Global Telecommunications System).

synoptic chart

a weather chart reflecting the state of the atmosphere over a large area at a given moment.

synoptic analysis

the study of the synoptic observation data plotted on synoptic charts aimed at analysis of the atmospheric disturbances (for example, fronts, cyclones, and anticyclones).

surface wind

wind blowing near the earth's surface; it is measured, by convention, at a height of 10 meters (33 feet) above ground in an area where the distance between the anemometer and any obstruction is at least 10 times the height of the obstruction.

surface observation

a meteorological observation made on the earth's surface, in contrast with an upper-air observation.


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