climatology and meteorology


top of the mesosphere, situated at about 80-85 kilometers (50-53 miles).

meridional circulation

an atmospheric circulation in a vertical plane oriented along a meridian; it consists of the vertical and the meridional (north or south) components of motion only.

mercury barometer

a mercury-filled glass tube in which the height of the mercury column is a measure of air pressure.

marine climate

a climate dominated by the ocean; because of the moderating effect of water, sites having this climate are considered relatively mild.

magnetic pole

either of the two points on the earth's surface at which magnetic meridians converge; the horizontal component of the magnetic field of the earth becomes zero at this point; also called the dip pole.

low-level clouds

clouds in the lower region of the atmosphere, from ground level to 6500 feet (2000 meters); includes stratus, stratocumulus, the bases of cumulus and cumulonimbus, and sometimes nimbostratus clouds.


area of low pressure in the atmosphere.

longwave radiation

heat radiation with wavelengths greater than 4 millimeters.

mountain wind

a cold wind blowing down an incline; a kind of katabatic wind.

mixed precipitation

precipitation consisting of a mixture of rain and wet snow; it usually occurs when the temperature of the air layer near the ground is slightly above freezing; the British term for this mixture is sleet (which has a different meaning in the United States).


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