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All About Arctic Climatology and Meteorology was designed especially for educators and students up through the 12th grade. If you have questions about the site's content or about frozen ground, please contact us. We also appreciate your comments and suggestions.

Use of Materials

You may use all information and resources on this site free of charge for educational purposes. Unless otherwise specified, you may also use any images found on this site. Please credit "NSIDC" when using images from this site. When you use information from All About Arctic Climatology and Meteorology, please use the following citation:

National Snow and Ice Data Center. All About Arctic Climatology and Meteorology. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/arctic-meteorology/.

Site Credits

A majority of the material on this site was first published in 2000 as a primer within the Environment Working Group's (EWG) Arctic Meteorology and Climate Atlas. The Atlas was the work of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), St. Petersburg, Russia, and the National Snow and Ice Data Center. In addition to the Primer, the full Atlas contains information on the history of Russian and Western research in the Arctic; important, previously unavailable data for polar research; and several Russian language scientific papers translated into English. The complete Arctic Meteorology and Climate Atlas is available for download from NSIDC.

The Atlas also contains a glossary of cryospheric terms. The terms, originally in Russian, were translated in 1999 for the Atlas by Nina A. Zaitseva, Ph.D. (Secretary for Science Division of Oceanology, Atmospheric Physics and Geography Russian Academy of Sciences)

Primary sources used for the glossary are the following:

Huschke, Ralph E., ed. 1959. Glossary of Meteorology. Boston: American Meteorological Society.

Khromov, S.P. and L.A. Mamontova. 1974. Glossary of Meteorology [in Russian] Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat.

World Meteorological Organization. 1992. International Meteorological Vocabulary. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization.

References and Further Reading

Adams, K., M.M. Buechner, D. Eisenberg, T. Gray, M. Krantz, J. Morse, M. Orecklin, A. Sanders, S. Veitch. 1998. It Hasn't Been This Sizzling In Centuries. Time May 4. Vol. 151. No. 17.

AMAP. 1997. Arctic Pollution Issues: A State of the Arctic Environment Report. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, P.O. box 8100 Dep., N-0032 Oslo, Norway.

Arctic Report Card: Update for 2019 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Armstrong, T., Rogers, G., Rowley, G. 1978. The Circumpolar North. Methuen & Co. Ltd., London. p. 9.

Barr, W. 1983. Geographical Aspects of the First International Polar Year, 1882-83. Annal of the Association of American Geographers 73(4):463-484.

Barr, W. 1985. The Expeditions of the First International Polar Year, 1882-83 The Arctic Institute of North America. Technical Paper No. 29:1-5.

Barry, R.G. 1983. Arctic Ocean Ice and Climate: Perspectives on a Century of Polar Research. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 73(4):485-501.

Barry, R.G. 1995. "Land of the Midnight Sun." in Polar Regions: The Illustrated Library of the Earth edited by Jack D. Ives and David Sugden. RD Press 26-32 Waterloo Street, Surry Hills, NSW 2010, Australia. pp 28-39.

Barry, R.G., R.J. Chorley. 1998. Atmosphere, Weather and Climate, Seventh Edition Routledge, New York, NY.

Barry, R.G., M.C. Serreze, J.A. Maslanik, R.H. Preller. 1993. The Arctic Sea - Ice Climate System: Observations and Modelling. Reviews of Geophysics 31 pp 397-422.

Barry, R.G., R.K. Hare. "Arctic Climate." Arctic and Alpine Environments. J.P. Ives and R.G. Barry, editors. Methuen, London. pp 17-54.

Belt, D. 1997. An Arctic Breakthrough. National Geographic February pp 36-57.

Bond, B. 1980. The Handbook of Sailing. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. New York.

Bramwell, Martyn. 1998. Polar Exploration: Journeys to the Arctic and Antarctic. DK Discoveries Publishing, Inc., New York.

Calvin, W.H. 1998. The Great Climate Flip-flop. The Atlantic Monthly January.

Canadian Arctic Profiles: Exploration of the Northwest Passage

Carlowicz, M. 1997. New Data From Cold War Treasure Trove. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 78(9):93,97.

Clark, M.P., M.C. Serreze, R.G. Barry. 1996. Characteristics of Arctic Ocean Climate Based on COADS Data, 1980-1993. Geophysical Research Letters 23(15):1953-1956.

Crane, K., J.L. Galasso. 1999. Map 22. "Peoples of the Arctic." Arctic Environmental Atlas. Office of Naval Research. Naval Research Laboratory. Hunter College.

Davis, N.T. 1992. The Aurora Watcher's Handbook. University of Alaska Press. ISBN 0-912006-60-9.

Dickson, B. 1999. All Change in the Arctic. Nature 397(6718):389-391.

Goosse, H., J.E. Kay, K.C Armour, et al. 2018. Quantifying climate feedbacks in polar regions. Nature Communications 9:1919. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04173-0.

Holland, Clive. 1994. Farthest North: A History of North Polar Exploration in Eye-Witness Accounts. Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., New York.

Kahl, J.D. et al. 1992. In Situ Meteorological Sounding Archives for Arctic Studies. Bulletin American Meteorological Society 73(11):1824-1830.

Laursen, V. 1982. The Second International Polar Year (1932/33). World Meteorological Organization Bulletin 31(3):214-222.

Leary, W.M., LeSchack, L.A. 1996. Project Coldfeet: Secret Mission to a Soviet Ice Station. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland.

Levere, T.H. 1993. Science and the Canadian Arctic: A Century of Exploration, 1818-1918. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York. pp 61, 70, 379-381.

Lydolph, P.E. 1977. "Climates of the Soviet Union." World Survey of Climatology vol 7. editor: H.E. Landsberg. Elsevier Publishing Company. Amsterdam-London-New York.

Macilwain, C. 1998. Gore Calls For Action on Climate Change as Congress Stalls. Nature 394:305.

McGhee, R. 1995. "Life at High Altitudes." in Polar Regions: The Illustrated Library of the Earth edited by Jack D. Ives and David Sugden. RD press 26-32 Waterloo Street, Surry Hills, NSW 2010, Australia. pp 126-143.

Mirsky, J. 1934. To The North! The Story of Arctic Exploration from Earliest Times to the Present. The Viking Press, New York, New York. pp 256, 317-318.

Monastersky, R. 1999. Sea Change in the Arctic: An Oceanful of Clues Points to Climatic Warming in the Far North. Science News vol. 155 (February 13).

Moran, J.M., M.D. Morgan 1989. Meteorology: The Atmosphere and the Science of Weather. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, New York. 557 pages

Morison, J.,K. Aagaard, M. Steele. 1998. Report on Study of the Arctic Change Workshop held: November 10-12, 1997. University of Washington Seattle, Washington. Report #8. NSF Grant # OPP-9712315

NASA. 1998. The Earth Science Enterprise Series: Global Warming. NASA Facts. NF-222. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771.

NASA. 1998. The Earth Science Enterprise Series: Polar Ice. NASA Facts. NF-212. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771.

National Geographic Society. 1983. Arctic Ocean: National Geographic Map Supplement National Geographic. February vol 163(2):144A.

Naval Research Laboratory Marine Meteorology Division. 1992. Arctic - East Siberian/Chukchi/Beaufort Seas Weather Analysis and Forecast Applications - Meteorological Satellite Systems. Navy Tactical Applications Guide, vol 8, part 2.

Nicolet, M. 1982. The International Geophysical Year (1957/58). World Meteorological Organization Bulletin 31(3):222-227.

NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. Daylight, Darkness and Changing of the Seasons at the North Pole. Accessed January 6, 2020.

Nunavut Handbook Home http://www.nunavuthandbook.com/

Ogilvie, A.E., L.K. Barlow, A.E. Jennings. 2000. North Atlantic Climate c. AD 1000: Millennial Reflections on the Viking Discoveries of Iceland, Greenland and North America. Weather. vol 55(2):34-45.

Orvig, S. 1970. "Climates of the Polar Regions." World Survey of Climatology. vol 14. editor: H.E. Landsberg. Elsevier Publishing Company. Amsterdam-London-New York.

The Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection: Maps of Polar Regions and Oceans (http://www.lib.utexas.edu/Libs/PCL/Map_collection/polar.html)

Petterssen, S., W.C. Jacobs, B.C. Haynes. 1956. Meteorology of the Arctic. Naval Operations For Polar Projects Op-03A3 (OPNAV PO3-3). March.

Reed, R. 1962. Arctic Forecast Guide U.S. Navy Weather Research Facility. NWRF 16-0462-058.

Rothrock, D.A., Y.Yu, G.A. Maykut. 1999. Thinning of the Arctic Sea-Ice Cover. Geophysical Research Letters 26(23):1-5.

Sater, John E. 1968. Arctic Drifting Stations: A Report on Activities Supported by the Office of Naval Research. Proceedings of the Symposium held at Airlie Conference Center, Warrenton, Virginia, 12-15 April 1966 under the auspices of The Arctic Institute of North America and the Office of Naval Research, U.S. Navy.

Schmitz, W.J.Jr. 1996. On the World Ocean Circulation: Volume I: Some Global Features / North Atlantic Circulation. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Technical Report WHOI-96-03.

Schneider, S.H. 1996. "Arctic." Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather Volume 1. Oxford University Press. New York - Oxford. p. 43-47.

Sechrist, R.S., R.W. Fett, D.C. Perryman. 1989. Forecasters Handbook for the Arctic. Naval Environmental Prediction Research Facility, Monterey, CA 93943-5006. Technical Report TR 89-12.

Serreze, M.C., R.G. Barry. 1988. Synoptic Activity in the Arctic Basin, 1979-85. Journal of Climate 1(12):1293.

Serreze, M.C., R.G. Barry, M.C. Rehder, J.E. Walsh. 1995. Variability In Atmospheric Circulation And Moisture Flux Over The Arctic. Phil Trans Royal Society of London A 352:215-225.

Serreze, M.C., J.E. Box, R.G. Barry, J.E. Walsh. 1993. Characteristics of Arctic Synoptic Activity, 1952-1989. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 51:147-164.

Serreze, M.C., J.E. Walsh, F.S. Chapin III, T. Osterkamp, M. Dyurgerov, V. Romanovsky, W.C. Oechel, J. Morison, T. Zhang, R.G. Barry. 2000. (in press) Observational Evidence of Recent Change in the Northern High-Latitude Environment. Climatic Change.

Sharp R.P. 1958. Polar Record, 9(58):34-5.

Slats, R., C. Oliver, R. Bahnke, H. Bell, A. Miller, D. Pungowiyi, J. Merculief, N. Menadelook Sr., J. Ivanoff, C. Oxereok, M.L. Druckenmiller, R. Daniel, M. Johnson. 2019. Voices from the front lines of a changing Bering Sea: An indigenous perspective for the 2019 Arctic Report Card. Arctic Report Card: Update for 2019.

Weller, G. 1995. "The Polar Environment." in Polar Regions: The Illustrated Library of the Earth. edited by Jack D. Ives and David Sugden. RD press 26-32 Waterloo Street, Surry Hills, NSW 2010, Australia. p. 14-24.

Welsh, J.P., R.D. Ketchum, Jr., A.W. Lohanick, L.D. Farmer, D.T. Eppler, R.E. Burge, C.J. Radl. 1986. A Compendium of Arctic Environmental Information. Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity Report 138. March.

World Meteorological Organization

Young, S. B. 1989. To the Arctic. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. p. 2.

How to Cite

To cite material from this website, NSIDC recommends the following format:

"All About Arctic Climatology and Meteorology." National Snow and Ice Data Center. Accessed [Day] [Month] [Year]. /cryosphere/arctic-meteorology/index.html.

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Last updated: 4 May 2020