Tingjun Zhang

Senior Research Scientist
Director (adjunct), Institute of Plateau Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration
CIRES Fellow

Degrees: 

PhD, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1993

Specialties: 

Permafrost and seasonally frozen ground; remote sensing of near-surface soil freeze/thaw cycle; snow cover and soil thermal dynamics

Recent Highlights and Upcoming Expeditions

  • July 2009: Zhang traveled to the North Slope of Alaska to study the carbon content in permafrost.
  • January 2009: Zhang received a Reviewers Certificate from the Elsevier journal Cold Regions Science & Technology, which was awarded to reviewers who had gone above and beyond the normal peer review process.
  • Summer 2008: Zhang traveled to the Tibetan Plateau, China, to study permafrost and seasonally frozen ground.
  • April 2008: Zhang was elected to the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) Council of Fellows. CIRES is NSIDC's parent institution at the University of Colorado at Boulder.
  • October 2007: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was named to receive the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize, along with former Vice President Al Gore. Zhang contributed to the most recent IPCC report, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, serving as a lead author for Chapter 4, "Observations: Changes in snow, ice and frozen ground."
  • October 2007: Briefed former Vice President Al Gore on permafrost and frozen ground
  • February 2007: Zhang was invited to be the first Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) Arctic Visiting Speaker (see ARCUS Invites NSIDC Scientist to be Arctic Visiting Speaker)
  • February 2007: Zhang was lead author for Chapter 4, "Observations: Changes in Snow, Ice, and Frozen Ground," in the IPCC report, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis
  • December 2005: Published an invited overview of snow cover and frozen ground in the December 31, 2005 issue of Reviews of Geophysics (see Overview of Frozen Ground Research Published)
  • Developed and distributed data sets on areal extent of seasonally frozen ground in the northern hemisphere from 1901 to 2002
  • Participated in the IPCC Working Group 1 Fourth Assessment as lead author concerning changes in permafrost/frozen ground

Current Research

  • Investigating changes in the active layer and permafrost in the Russian Arctic through ground-based measurements and numerical modeling
  • Using passive microwave satellite remote sensing data to detect near-surface soil freeze/thaw cycles at various scales; NSIDC Frozen Soil Algorithm has been developed using both remote sensing technique and numerical modeling
  • Working with the International Permafrost Association and the International Arctic Research Center to collect and distribute permafrost- and frozen ground-related data worldwide for the Frozen Ground Data Center; new data sets have been added

Activities

Member, American Meteorological Society

Member, American Geophysical Union

Member, Association of American Geographers

Member, International Glaciological Society

Member, Steering Committee of the NASA Land Surface Hydrological Program (LSHP) Cold Land Processes Working Group

Member, Editorial Board of Directors, Cold Regions Science & Technology

Member, Editorial Boards of the Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology and the China Society of Glaciology and Geocryology

Publications

2014

Liu, J. and T. J. Zhang. 2014. Fundamental solution method for reconstructing past climate change from borehole temperature gradients. Cold Regions Science and Technology 102: 32-40, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2014.02.005.

Liu, L., K. Schaefer, A. Gusmeroli, G. Grosse, B. M. Jones, T. Zhang, A. D. Parsekian, and H. A. Zebker. 2014. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska. Cryosphere 8(3): 815-826, doi:10.5194/tc-8-815-2014.

Mu, C. C., T. J. Zhang, P. F. Schuster, K. Schaefer, K. P. Wickland, D. A. Repert, L. Liu, T. Schaefer, and G. D. Cheng. 2014. Carbon and geochemical properties of cryosols on the North Slope of Alaska. Cold Regions Science and Technology 100: 59-67, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2014.01.001.

Tuorto, S. J., P. Darias, L. R. McGuinness, N. Panikov, T. J. Zhang, M. M. Haggblom, and L. J. Kerkhof. 2014. Bacterial genome replication at subzero temperatures in permafrost. The ISME Journal 8(1): 139-149, doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.140.

Vandenberghe, J., H. M. French, A. Gorbunov, S. Marchenko, A. A. Velichko, H. J. Jin, Z. J. Cui, T. J. Zhang, and X. D. Wan. 2014. The Last Permafrost Maximum (LPM) map of the Northern Hemisphere: permafrost extent and mean annual air temperatures, 25-17ka BP. Boreas 43(3): 652-666, doi:10.1111/bor.12070.

Zhong, X., T. Zhang, and K. Wang. 2014. Snow density climatology across the former USSR. Cryosphere 8(2): 785-799, doi:10.5194/tc-8-785-2014.

2013

Liu, L., K. Schaefer, A. Gusmeroli, G. Grosse, B. M. Jones, T. Zhang, A. D. Parsekian, and H. A. Zebker. 2013. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska. The Cryosphere Discussions 7: 5,793-5822, doi:10.5194/tcd-7-5793-2013.

Tuorto, S. J., P. Darias, L. R. McGuinness, N. Panikov, T. Zhang, M. M .Häggblom, and L. J. Kerkhof. 2013. Bacterial genome replication at subzero temperatures in permafrost. The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology, doi: 10.1038/ismej.2013.140.

Zhong, X., T. Zhang, and K. Wang. 2013. Snow density climatology across the former USSR. The Cryosphere Discussions 7: 3,379-3,415, doi:10.5194/tcd-7-3379-2013.

2012

DeConto, R. M., S. Galeotti, M. Pagani, D. Tracy, K. Schaefer, T. J. Zhang, D. Pollard, and D. J. Beerling. 2012. Past extreme warming events linked to massive carbon release from thawing permafrost. Nature 484(7392), doi:10.1038/nature10929.

Li, X., R. Jin, X. D. Pan, T. J. Zhang, and J. W. Guo. 2012. Changes in the near-surface soil freeze-thaw cycle on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 17: 33-42, doi:10.1016/j.jag.2011.12.002.

Liu, L., K. Schaefer, T. J. Zhang, and J. Wahr. 2012. Estimating 1992-2000 average active layer thickness on the Alaskan North Slope from remotely sensed surface subsidence. Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface 117, F01005, doi:10.1029/2011JF002041.

Velicogna, I., J. Tong, T. Zhang, and J. S. Kimball. 2012. Increasing subsurface water storage in discontinuous permafrost areas of the Lena River basin, Eurasia, detected from GRACE. Geophysical Research Letters 39, L09403, doi;10.1029/2012GL051623.

Wu, Q., T. Zhang., and Y. Liu. 2012. Thermal state of the active layer and permafrost along the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Railway from 2006 to 2010. The Cryosphere Discussions 6(3): 607-612, doi:10.5194/tc-6-607-2012.

2011

Fan, Z. S., J. C. Neff, J. W. Harden, T. J. Zhang, H. Veldhuis, C. I. Czimczik, G. C. Winston, and J. A. O'Donnell. 2011. Water and heat transport in boreal soils: Implications for soil response to climate change. Science of the Total Environment 409(10): 1,836-1,842, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.02.009.

Frauenfeld, O. W., and T. J. Zhang. 2011. An observational 71-year history of seasonally frozen ground changes in the Eurasian high latitudes. Environmental Research Letters 6(4), 44024, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/044024.

Schaefer, K., T. J. Zhang, L. Bruhwiler, and A. P. Barrett. 2011. Amount and timing of permafrost carbon release in response to climate warming. Tellus 63(2): 165-180, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2011.00527.x.

Wen, Z., T. J. Zhang, Y. Sheng, W. Ma, Q. B. Wu, W. J. Feng, and Z. Z. Sun. 2011. Managing ice-rich permafrost exposed during cutting excavation along Qinghai-Tibetan railway: Experiences and implementation. Engineering Geology 122: 316-327, doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.07.012.

Yang, X. G., T. .J Zhang, D. H. Qin, S. C. Kang, and X. A. Qin. 2011. Characteristics and Changes in Air Temperature and Glacier's Response on the North Slope of Mt. Qomolangma (Mt. Everest). Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 43(1): 147-160, doi:10.1657/1938-4246-43.1.147.

Ye, B., D. Yang, T. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhou. 2011. Hydrological process change with air temperature over Lena Basin in Siberia. Cold Region Hydrology in a Changing Climate (Proceedings of a symposium H02 held during IUGG2011 in Melbourne, Australia, July 2011). IAHS Publication 346, 2011, pages 33-38.

2010

Chen, B. L., R. H. Zhang, S. F. Sun, L. G. Bian, C. D. Xiao, and T. J. Zhang. 2010. A one-dimensional heat transfer model of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and modeling of snow temperatures at Dome A, the summit of Antarctic Plateau. Science China Earth Sciences 53(5): 763-772, doi:10.1007/s11430-010-0017-z.

Chen, B. L., R. H. Zhang, C. D. Xiao, L. G. Bian, and T. J. Zhang. 2010. Analyses on the air and snow temperatures near ground with observations of an AWS at Dome A, the summit of Antarctic Plateau. Chinese Science Bulletin 55(14): 1,430-1,436 doi:10.1007/s11434-010-0099-1.

Liu, L., T. J. Zhang, and J. Wahr. 2010. InSAR measurements of surface deformation over permafrost on the North Slope of Alaska. Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surfaces 115, F03023, doi:10.1029/2009JF001547.

Wu, Q. B., L. Ge, Y. Z. Liu, and T. J. Zhang. 2010. Thermal Performance of Embankment Within Crushed Rock Layer Along Qinghai-Tibet Railway. International Journal of Offshore Polar Engineering 20(3): 210-217.

2009

Ma, L.J., T. Zhang, O. W. Frauenfeld, B. S. Ye, D. Q. Yang, and D. H. Qin. 2009. Evaluation of precipitation from the ERA-40, NCEP-1, and NCEP-2 Reanalyses and CMAP-1, CMAP-2, and GPCP-2 with ground-based measurements in China. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 114, D09105, doi:10.1029/2008JD011178.

Schaefer, K., T. Zhang, A. G. Slater, L. Lu, A. Etringer, and I. Baker. 2009. Improving simulated soil temperatures and soil freeze/thaw at high-latitude regions in the Simple Biosphere/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach model. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, F02021, doi:10.1029/2008JF001125.

2008

Ma, L., T. Zhang, Q. Li, O. W. Frauenfeld, and D. Qin. 2008. Evaluation of ERA-40, NCEP-1, and NCEP-2 reanalysis air temperatures with ground-based measurements in China. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D15115, doi:10.1029/2007JD009549.

Wu, Q., and T. Zhang. 2008. Recent permafrost warming on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D13108, doi:10.1029/2007JD009539.

Wu, Q., Z. Lu, T. Zhang, W. Ma, and Y. Liu. 2008. Analysis of cooling effect of crushed rock-based embankment of the Qinghai-Xizang Railway. Cold Regions Science & Technology 53(3): 271-282, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2007.10.004.

Zhang, T., R. G. Barry, K. Knowles, J. Heginbottom, and J. Brown. 2008. Statistics and characteristics of permafrost and ground-ice distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Polar Geography 31: 47-68, doi:10.1080/10889370802175895.

Zhang, T., and D. Yang. 2008. Tribute: A Legendary Glaciologist: Academician Shi Yafeng on His Ninetieth Birthday. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 40(3): 600-604.

Zhang, T., T. Harry, W. Baker, G.-D. Cheng, and Q. Wu. 2008. The Qinghai–Tibet Railroad: A milestone project and its environmental impact. Cold Regions Science & Technology 53(3): 229-240, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2008.06.003.

2007

Anisimov, O. A., V. A. Lobanov, S. A. Reneva, N. I. Shiklomanov, T. Zhang, and F. E. Nelson. 2007. Uncertainties in gridded air temperature fields and effects on predictive active layout modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, F02S14, doi:10.1029/2006JF000593.

Chu, D., L. Lu, and T. Zhang. 2007. Sensitivity of NDVI to seasonal and interannual climate conditions in Lhasa area, Tibetan Plateau. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 39(4): 635-641.

Fan, G., T. Zhang, J. Ji, K. Li, and J. Liu. 2007. Numerical simulation of the carbon cycle over the Tibetan Plateau, China. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 39(4): 723-732.

Lemke, P., J. Ren, R. B. Alley, I. Allison, J. Carrasco, G. Flato, Y. Fujii, G. Kaser, P. Mote, R. H. Thomas, and T. Zhang. 2007. Chapter 4, Observations: Changes in Snow, Ice, and Frozen Ground. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. S. Solomon et al., 337-384. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ling, F., and T. Zhang. 2007. Modeled impacts of changes in tundra snow thickness on ground thermal regime and heat flow to the atmosphere in Northernmost Alaska. Global and Planetary Change 57: 235-246.

Oelke, C., and T. Zhang. 2007. Modeling the soil thermal regime of the Tibetan Plateau. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 39(4): 714-722.

Paimazumder, D., J. Miller, Z. Li, J. E. Walsh, A. Etringer, J. McCreight, T. Zhang, and N. Mölders. 2007. Evaluation of Community Climate System Model soil temperatures using observations from Russia. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, doi:10.1007/s00704-007-0350-0.

Saito, K., M. Kimoto, T. Zhang, K. Takata, and S. Emori. 2007. Evaluating a high-resolution climate model: Simulated hydrothermal regimes in frozen ground regions and their change under the global warming scenario. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, F02S11, doi:10.1029/2006JF000577.

Schaefer, K., T. Zhang, P. P. Tans, and R. Stöckli. 2007. Temperature anomaly reemergence in seasonally frozen soils. Journal of Geophysical Research 12, D20102, doi:10.1029/2007JD008630.

Serreze, M. C., A. P. Barrett, A. G. Slater, M. Steele, J. Zhang, and K. E. Trenberth. 2007. The large-scale energy budget of the Arctic. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D11122, doi: 10.1029/2006JD008230.

Shiklomanov, N. I., O. A. Anisimov, T. Zhang, S. Marchenko, F. E. Nelson, and C. Oelke. 2007. Comparison of model-produced active layer fields: results for northern Alaska. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, F02S10, doi: 10.1029/2006JF000571.

White, D., L. Hinzman, L. Alessa, J. Cassano, M. Chambers, K. Falkner, J. Francis, W. J. Gutowski, M. Holland, R. M. Holmes, H. Huntington, D. Kane, A. Kliskey, C. Lee, J. McClelland, B. Peterson, T. S. Rupp, F. Straneo, M. Steele, R. Woodgate, D. Yang, K. Yoshikawa, and T. Zhang. 2007. The Arctic freshwater system: Changes and impacts. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, doi:10.1029/2006JG000353.

Zhang, T. 2007. Perspectives on environmental study of response to climatic and land use and land cover change over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: An introduction. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 39(4): 631-634.

Zhang, T., F. Nelson, and S. Gruber. 2007. Introduction to special section: permafrost and seasonally frozen ground under a changing climate. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, F02S01, doi:10.1029/2007JF000821.

2006

Chudinova, S. M., O. W. Frauenfeld, R. G. Barry, T. Zhang, and V. A. Sorokovikov. 2006. Relationship between air and soil temperatures and periodicities in the permafrost regions of Russia. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, doi:10.1029/2005JF000342.

Frauenfeld, O. W., T. Zhang, and J. L. McCreight. 2007. Northern Hemisphere freezing/thawing index variations over the 20th century. International Journal of Climatology 27(1): 47-63, doi:10.1002/joc.1372.

Ling, F., and T. Zhang. 2006. Sensitivity of ground thermal regime and surface energy fluxes to tundra snow density in northern Alaska. Cold Regions Science & Technology 44(2): 121-130, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2005.09.002.

2005

Duguay, C. R., T. Zhang, D. W. Leverington, and V. E. Romanovsky. 2005. Satellite remote sensing of permafrost and seasonally frozen ground. In Remote Sensing in Northern Hydrology, Eds. C. R. Duguay and A. Pietroniro, 91-118. Washington, D. C.: American Geophysical Union.

Frauenfeld, O. W., T. Zhang, and M. C. Serreze. 2005. Climate change and variability using European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis (ERA-40) temperatures on the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, doi:10.1029/2004JD005230.

Ling, F., and T. Zhang. 2005. Modeling the effect of variations in snowpack-disappearance date on surface-energy balance on the Alaskan North Slope. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 37(4): 483-489.

Zhang, T., O. W. Frauenfeld, M. C. Serreze, A. J. Etringer, C. Oelke, J. L. McCreight, R. G. Barry, D. Gilichinsky, D. Yang, H. Ye, L. Feng, and S. Chudinova. 2005. Spatial and temporal variability in active layer thickness over the Russian Arctic Drainage Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, doi:10.1029/2004JD005642.

Zhang, T. 2005. Influence of the seasonal snow cover on the ground thermal regime: an overview. Reviews of Geophysics 43:1-23, doi:10.1029/2004RG000157.

Zhang, T. 2005. Historical overview of permafrost studies in China. Physical Geography 26(4): 279-298.

2004

Frauenfeld, O., T. Zhang, R. G. Barry, and D. G. Gilichinsky. 2004. Interdecadal changes in seasonal freeze and thaw depths in Russia. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, doi:10.1029/2003JD004245.

Ling, F., and T. Zhang. 2004. A numerical model for surface energy balance and thermal regime of the active layer and permafrost containing unfrozen water. Cold Regions Science & Technology 38(1): 1-15, doi:10.1016/S0165-232X(03)00057-0.

Oelke, C., and T. Zhang. 2004. A Model study of circum-Arctic soil temperatures. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 15(2): 103-121. doi:10.1002/ppp.485.

Oelke, C., T. Zhang, and M. C. Serreze. 2004. Modeling evidence for recent warming of the Arctic soil thermal regime. Geophysical Research Letters 31(L07208), doi:10.1029/2003GL019300.

Ye, H., D. Yang, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, and S. Ladochy, and M. Ellison. 2004. The impact of climatic condition on seasonal river discharges in Siberia. Journal of Hydrometeorology 5: 286-295.

Zhang, T., R. G. Barry, and R. L. Armstrong. 2004. Application of satellite remote sensing on frozen ground studies. Polar Geography 28(3): 193-196.

2003

Ling, F., and T. Zhang. 2003. Impact of the timing and duration of seasonal snow cover on the active layer and permafrost in the Alaskan Arctic. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 14: 141-150, doi:10.1002/ppp.445.

Ling, F., and T. Zhang. 2003. Numerical simulation of permafrost thermal regime and talik development under shallow thaw lakes on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, 4511, doi:10.1029/2002JD003014.

Oelke, C., T. Zhang, M. Serreze, and R. Armstrong. 2003. Regional-scale modeling of soil freeze/thaw over the Arctic drainage basin. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D10): 4314, doi:10.1029/2002JD002722.

Ye, H., D. Yang, X. Zhang, and T. Zhang. 2003. Connections of Yenisei River discharge to sea surface temperatures, sea ice, and atmospheric circulation. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D24): 4776, doi:10.1029/2003JD003759.

Zhang, T., R. L. Armstrong, and J. Smith. 2003. Investigation of the near-surface soil freeze/thaw cycle in the contiguous United States: Algorithm development and validation. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D22): 8860, doi:10.1029/2003JD003530.

Zhang, T., R. G. Barry, K. Knowles, F. Ling, and R. L. Armstrong. 2003. Distribution of seasonally and perennially frozen ground in the Northern Hemisphere. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Permafrost, Volume 2, ed. M. Phillips, S. M. Springman, and L. U. Arenson, 1289-1294. Zurich: A. A. Balkema Publishers.

Zhang, T., T. Scambos, T. Haran, L. D. Hinzman, R. G. Barry, and D. L. Kane. 2003. Ground-based and satellite-derived measurements of surface albedo on the North Slope of Alaska, USA. Journal of Hydrometeorology 4(1): 77-91.

2002

Ling, F., and T. Zhang. 2002. A two-dimensional heat transfer model for atmosphere-land system in the lake-dominated Alaskan North Slope. Journal of Xijiang University 22: 1-7.

Serreze, M. C., D. H. Bromwich, M. P. Clark, A. J. Etringer, T. Zhang, and R. Lammers. 2002. The large-scale hydroclimatology of the terrestrial Arctic drainage system. Journal of Geophysical Research 107: 816, doi:10.1029/2001JD000919.

Yang, D., D. L. Kane, L. D. Hinzman, X. Zhang, T. Zhang, and H. Ye. 2002. Siberian Lena River hydrologic regime and recent change. Journal of Geophysical Research 107(D23): 4694, doi:10.1029/2002JD002542.

Zhang, T. 2002. A major milestone of permafrost study in China: review of "Geocryology in China." Journal of Glacioiogy and Geocryology 12(4): 375-385.

Zhang, T. 2002. Frozen ground study in China: a review. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology 12(4): 345-350.

2001

Zhang, T., R. G. Barry, and W. Haeberli. 2001. Numerical simulations of the influence of the seasonal snow cover on the occurrence of permafrost. Norwegian Journal of Geography 55(4): 261-266.

Zhang, T., R. G. Barry, D. Gilichinsky, S. S. Bykhovets, V. A. Sorokovikov, and J. Ye. 2001. An amplified signal of climatic change in soil temperatures during the last century at Irkutsk, Russia. Climatic Change 49(1-2): 41-76, doi:10.1023/A:1010790203146.

Zhang, T., K. Stamnes, and S. A. Bowling. 2001. Impact of the atmospheric thickness on the atmospheric downwelling longwave radiation during snowmelt in the Arctic and Subarctic. Journal of Climate 14(5): 920-939.

Zhang, T., and R. L. Armstrong. 2001. Soil freeze/thaw cycles over snow-free land detected by passive microwave remote sensing. Geophysical Research Letters 28(5): 763-766.

2000

Gilichinsky, D. A., S. S. Bykhovets, V. A. Sorokovikov, D. G. Fedorov-Davydov, R. G. Barry, T. Zhang, M. K. Gavrilova, and O. I. Alexeeva. 2000. Use of the data of hydrometeorological survey for century history of soil temperature trends in the seasonally frozen and permafrost areas of Russia. Kriosfera Zemli (The Earth cryosphere) 4(3): 59-66. In Russian with English abstract.

Zhang, T., J. A. Heginbottom, R. G. Barry, and J. Brown. 2000. Further statistics on the distribution of permafrost and ground-ice in the Northern Hemisphere. Polar Geography 24(2): 126-131.

Zhang, T., and M. O. Jeffries. 2000. Modeling inter-decadal variations of lake ice thickness and sensitivity to climatic change in northernmost Alaska. Annals of Glaciology 31: 339-347.

Liu, F., J. Sun, T. Zhang, and G. Cheng. 2000. Characteristics of surface radiative fluxes and cloud-radiative forcing with a focus on the Arctic. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology 22(4): 384-390.

1999

Serreze, M. C., J. E. Walsh, F. S. Chapin, T. Osterkamp, M. Dyurgerov, V. Romanovsky, W. C. Oechel, J. Morison, T. Zhang, and R. Barry. 1999. Observational evidence of recent change in the northern high-latitude environment. Climatic Change 46:159-207.

Zhang, T., Roger G. Barry, K. Knowles, J. A. Heginbottom, and J. Brown. 1999. Statistics and characteristics of permafrost and ground ice distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Polar Geography 23(2): 147-169.

Jeffries, M, O., T. Zhang, K. Krey, and N. Kozlenko. 1999. Conductive heat flux through the snow cover on lakes and tundra in late winter on the Alaskan North Slope. Journal of Glaciology 45(150): 315-324.

1998

Gilichinsky, D. A., R. G. Barry, S. S. Bykhovets, V. A. Sorokovikov, T. Zhang, S. L. Zudin, and D. G. Fedorov-Davydov. 1998. A century of temperature observations of soil climate: methods of analysis and long-term trends. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Permafrost, Yellowknife, Canada, June 22-27, 1998, 313-317.

Zhang, T. 1998. Climate and permafrost conditions in northern Alaska, USA. The Earth Geocryosphere 2(1): 19-27. (In Russian with English abstract)

Zhang, T., and K. Stamnes. 1998. Impact of climatic factors on the active layer and permafrost at Barrow, Alaska. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 9(3): 229-246.

1997

Zhang, T., T. E. Osterkamp, and K. Stamnes. 1997. Effects of climate on the active layer and permafrost on the North Slope of Alaska, U.S.A. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 8(1): 45-67.

Zhang, T., S. A. Bowling, and K. Stamnes. 1997. Impact of the atmosphere on the surface radiative fluxes and snowmelt in the Arctic and subarctic. Journal of Geophysical Research 102 (D4): 4,287-4,302.

1996

Zhang, T., T. E. Osterkamp, and K. Stamnes. 1996. Some characteristics of the climate in northern Alaska. Arctic and Alpine Research 28(4): 509-518.

Zhang, T., K. Stamnes, and S. A. Bowling. 1996. Impact of clouds on surface radiative fluxes and snowmelt in the Arctic and Subarctic. Journal of Climate 9(9): 2,110-2,123.

Zhang, T., T. E. Osterkamp, and K. Stamnes. 1996. Influence of the depth hoar layer of the seasonal snow cover on the ground thermal regime. Water Resources Research 32(7): 2,075-2,086.

1995

Zhang, T., and T. E. Osterkamp. 1995. Considerations in determining thermal diffusivity from temperature time series using numerical methods. Cold Regions Science & Technology 23: 333-341, doi:10.1016/0165-232X(94)00021-O.

Zhang, T. 1995. Impact of the depth hoar layer of snowpack on the ground thermal regime. In Proceedings of the 1995 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, paper No. 95-WA/HT-47.

1994

Osterkamp, T. E., T. Zhang, and V. E. Romanovsky. 1994. Evidence for a cyclic variation of permafrost temperatures in northern Alaska. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 5(3): 137-144, doi:10.1016/0165-232X(94)00021-O.

1993

Zhang, T., and T. E. Osterkamp. 1993. Changing climate and permafrost temperatures in the Alaskan Arctic. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Permafrost, Beijing, China, July 5-9, 1993, Vol. 1, 783-788.

1991

Zhang, T., T. E. Osterkamp, and J. Gosink. 1991. A model for the thermal regime of permafrost within the depth of annual temperature variations. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Cold Regions Heat Transfer, June 11-14, 1991, Fairbanks, Alaska, 341-347.

1989

Wang, S,. and T. Zhang. 1989. Periglacial phenomena along Qinghai-Xizang Highway of the Kunlun mountainous regions. Mountain Research 7(3): 139-147.

Wang, S., P. Wang, and T. Zhang. 1989. Applications of environmental isotope tritium to research into ground ice in permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology 11(1): 58-67.

1987

Zhang, T., and S. Wang. 1987. Approach to some problems on periglacial processes in the continental climate. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology 9(4): 318-327.

1986

Tong, B., S. Li, and T. Zhang. 1986. Frozen ground in the Altai Mountains of China. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology 8(4): 357-364.

1985

Li, S., B. Tong, and T. Zhang. 1985. Periglacial phenomena in the Altai Mountains of China. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology 7(1): 51-56.

Zhang, T., B. Tong, and S. Li. 1985. Influence of snow cover on the lower limit of permafrost in the Altai Mountains. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology 7(1): 57-64.

1983

Tong, B., S. Li, T. Zhang, and Y. He. 1983. Frozen ground in the Altai Mountains of China. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Permafrost, July 17-22, 1983, Fairbanks, Alaska, Vol. 1, 1,267-1,272.

1982

Zhang, W., and T. Zhang. 1982. Polygonal soil along the highway between Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet). Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology 4(3): 80-89.

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Related Resources

Cooperative Institute for Environmental Sciences (CIRES)

Western Water Assessment

E-mail: 
tzhang@nsidc.org
Phone: 
303-492-5236