Glaciological Data Series

Report GD-29: Bibliography on the Hydrology of the Himalaya-Karakoram Region

Report GD-29

WDC System
Description

Foreword

Preface

Contents

2.4 Glacier Studies in the Karakoram

Abbassi, A.A. (1936) A study of the Minapin glacier. Indus, 3(9): 29-34.

Abbassi, A.A. (1965) Land sculpture by the Karakoram Glaciers. Indus, 5(12): 28-32.

Academia Sinica. Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Cryopedology. Batura Glacier Investigation Group (1979) The Batura Glacier in the Karakoram Mountains and its variation. Scientia Sinica, 22(6): 45-77.

Ahlmann, H.W. (1924) Le niveau de glaciation comme fonction de l'accumulation d'humidite sous forme solide. Methode pour le calcul de l'humidite condensee dans la haute montagne et pour l'etude de la frequence des glaciers. Indus, 3(4): 35-45.

Ali, G. (1989) Some Hydrological Aspects of snowmelt runoff under summer conditions in the Barpu Glacier Basin, Central Karakoram, Himalaya, Northern Pakistan. Unpublished M.A. thesis. Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada,

American Geographical Society (1958) Geographical study of Mountain Glaciation in the Northern Hemisphere. American Geographical Society, Part 6: Western Arctic and Eastern Asia: 54p.

Anonymous (1932) The Karumber glacier.Himalayan Journal, 4: 182-184.

Anonymous (1939) Glaciers. Himalayan Journal, 12, 52-63.

Auden, J.B. (1934) Notes on the Biafo Glacier in Baltistan. Himalayan Journal, 6: 67-76.

Auden, J.B. (1934) The snout of the Biafo Glacier in Baltistan. Records of the Geological Survey of India, 68(4): 400-413.

Bai, Z. and Zhang, J. (1980) Some features of radiation and heat balance of the Batura Glacier. (In: Professional Papers on the Batura Glacier, Karakoram Mountains, 57-82. Beijing. Science Press.)

Batura Glacier Investigation Group (1979) The Batura glacier in the Karakoram Mountains and its variations. Scientia Sinica. 22: 958-974.

Bell, I.D., Gardner, J.S. and de Scally, F.A. (1990) An estimate of snow avalanche debris transport, Kaghan Valley, Himalaya Mountains, Pakistan. Journal of Arctic and Alpine Research, 22(3): 317-321.

Bhatti, A.K. (1936) Glaciers and the Indus Basin. Indus, 2(12): 29-32.

Boyce, B.A. (1988) Pasu Glacier survey 1988 - Pasu Gahr and Yorsch. Snow and Ice Hydrology Project, Wilfrid Laurier University. Unpublished: Mimeo.

Bridges, F.H. (1908) Hunza and Nagar glaciers. Indian Geological Survey Records, 37: 221.

Bridges, F.H. (1908) Report on the Shingsal Glaciers. Unpublished Manuscript: in Royal Geographical Society Library.

Butz, D.A.O. (1989) The agricultural use of meltwater in Hopar settlement, Pakistan. (In: Richardson, E.L. ed., Symposium on Glacier Mapping and Surveying, 13: 35-39.)

Calciati, C. (1914) Les fronts des glaciers de Jengutsa et d'Hispar. La Geogr., vol. 9-10.

Calciati, C., Workman, M. and Koncza, F.B. (1910) The basin of the Hispar Glacier. The call of the Snowy Hispar. Constable: London.

Charles, C. (1981) People and glaciers of the Hunza Valley, Karakorum, Pakistan. [Hommes et glaciers del la vallee de la Hunza (Karakorum-Pakistan).]. Revue de Geographie Alpine, 69(4): 607-615.

Chen, J. (1984) Variations of the Batura glacier's surface from repeated surveys. (In: Miller, K.J., ed., The International Karakoram Project, vol. 1., 196-204. Cambridge University Press: Great Britain.)

Chhibber, H.L. (1954) Some glacial lakes in the Ogput Range and the Pir Panjal Range, Kashmir. Bulletin of the National Geographical Society of India, 21: 43-45.

Dainelli, G. (1916) Escursione ai Ghiacciai dell'alta valle Sciaiok. Boll. della Sez Fiorent del C.A.I.

Dainelli, G. (1923) I ghiacciai del Caracorum. La Terra e la Vita.

Dainelli G., ed. (1924-1932) Relazione Scientifiche della Spedizione Italina de Fillippi, nell' Himalaia, Caracorum e Turchestan Cinese (1913-1914). Serie II. (In: Resultati geologici e geografici, 12 volumes: Nicola Zanichella: Bologna.

Dainelli, G. (1927-31) Viaggio ai grandi ghiacciai del Caracorum orientale. Annuario del Club Alp Accad Ital., 7-23.

Dainelli, G. (1932) The Italia Pass in the Eastern Karakoram. Geographical Review, 22: 392-402.

Dainelli, G. (1932) A journey to the glaciers of the Eastern Karakoram. Geographical Journal, 79: 257-274.

Dainelli, G. (1932) My Expedition in Eastern Karakoram, 1930.Himalayan Journal, 4: 46-54.

Dainelli, G. (1933) Buddhists and Glaciers of Western Tibet. London.

Dainelli, G. and O. Marinellie (1917) Osservazioni sui ghicciai sbarranti l'alta valle dello Sciaiok (Caracorum). Riv Geogr Ital. , vol. 23.

Dainelli, G. and Marinelli, O. (1928) Le Condizioni Fische Attuali. Spedizione Italiana de Filippi, 4: series 2: 1-68.

David, C.R. and Johnson, G. (1987) Effects of debris on surface layer density and ablation, Biafo Glacier, 1986. (Unpublished paper). Snow and Ice Hydrology Project, Wilfrid Laurier University: Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

de Scally, F.A. and Gardner, J.S. (1989) Evaluation of avalanche mass determination approaches: an example from the Himalaya, Pakistan. Journal of Glaciology, 40: 248-252.

Derbyshire, E. (1984) Sedimentological analysis of glacial and proglacial debris: a framework for the study of Karakoram glaciers. In: Miller, K.J., ed., The International Karakoram Project, vol. I., 347-364. Cambridge University Press: Great Britain.

Derbyshire, E., Li, J., Perrott, F.A., Shuying, X. and Waters, R.S. (1984) Quaternary glacial history of the Hunza Valley, Karakoram mountains, Pakistan. (In: Miller, K.J., ed., The International Karakoram Project, vol. II. , 456-495. Cambridge University Press: Great Britain.)

Desinov L.V., A.S. Iranchenkov, V.M. Kotlyakov and G.A Nosenko (1982) Rezul'taty eksperimenta po izucheiyu oledeniya karakoruma s borta orbital'noy stantii Salyut 6 [Result of experiment studies of Karakorum glaciers from aboard Salyut-6 orbital station]. Materialy Glyatsiologicheskikh Issledovaniy, Khornika, Obsuzdeniya. 42: 22-40.

Desio, A. (1954) An exceptional glacier advance in the Karakoram-Ladakh Region. Journal of Glaciology, 2(16): 383-385.

Desio, A. (1954) La mia recognizione al Karakoram del 1953. Ricerca scientifica. 24(2): 253-262.

Desio, A. (1954) La mia recognizione preliminare al K2 (Karakoram Occidentale), nel 1953. Riv. Mens Club. Alpino Ital. , 73: 1-2, 3-14.

Desio, A. (1954) La ricerche scientifiche della Spedizione Italiana al Karakoram-K2, 1954. Accad Naz. Lincei. Quad. , 34: 9

Desio, A. (1955) The scientific researches, Part 3, The Mountain World. 62-67. New York.

Desio, A. (1957) Notizie geologico-petrografiche preliminari sul bacino del ghiacciaio Baltoro. Ricerca scientifica, 27: 657-673.

Desio, A. (1958) Il Cretaceo fra il Karakorum e l'Hindu Kush (Asia Centrale). (In: Report of the 20th session International Geological Congress, 345-354. Section 7: Mexico.)

Desio, A. (1960) Resti glaciali Quaternari nelle valli Panjkora, Chitral e Swat (Pakistan Nord-Occidenatle). Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologica Italiano, 9: 6-17.

Desio, A. (1936) Espansioni glaciali quaternarie nel territorio di Faizabad (Afghanistan). R.C. Accad Naz Lincei. , vol. 32: 8: 281-285.

Desio, A. (1936) Appunti geologici preliminari sui bacini dei ghicciai Biafo e Hispar (Karakorum-Himalaya). Bollettino del Soc. Geol Italiano, 81: 69-84.

Desio, A. (1963) Review of geological Formations of the Western Kaarakorum (Central Asia). Riv. Ital. Paleont.ei. , 69: 4: 475-501.

Desio, A. (1977) The Work of the Italians in the Scientific Exploration of the Karakoram (Central Asia) . Accademia Nazionale del Lincei: Roma.

Desio, A. and Fantini, N. (1960) Sulla presenza del Giurassico fossilifero in Valle Shaksgam (Karakoram Himalaya). R.C. Accad Naz Lincei., 28: 8: 301-303.

Desio, A., Tongiorgi, E. and Ferrara, G. (1964) Notizie preliminare sull 'eta geologica di alcune rocce granitoidi del Karakoram, Hindu Kush e Badakhshan (Asia Centrale). R.C. Accad Naz Lincei., 36: i: 776-783.

Desio, A., Marussi, A. and Caputo, M. (1961) Glaciological research of the Italian Karakoram Expedition, 1953-1955. International Association Hydrological Sciences. International Association of Hydrological Sciences. IAHS Publication no. 54: 224-232.

Ding, Y. (1990) Nourishment condition of existing glacier on the north side of Karakoram Mountains. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 12(4): 237-334.

Ding, Y. (1992) Some glacio micrometeorological features of the north side of Mount Qogir (K2) Karakorum Mountains. (In: Hooke, R.L., ed., Symposium on Mountain Glaciology, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China, 26-30 August 1991. Proceedings. Annals of Glaciology, vol. 16: 67-72.)

Ding, Y. and Liu, J. (1992) Glacier lake outburst flood disasters in China. (In: Hooke, R.L., ed., Symposium on Mountain Glaciology, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China, 26-30 August 1991. Proceedings. Annals of Glaciology, vol. 16: 180-184.)

Dong, Z.B., Ferrari, R.L., Francis, M.R., Musil, G., Oswald, G.K.A. and Zhang, X. (1984) Impulse radar ice-depth sounding on the Hispar glacier. (In: Miller, K.J., ed., The International Karakoram Project, vol. II., 100-110. Cambridge University Press: Great Britain.)

Dong, Z., Zhang, X. Li, J. and Xu, S. (1983) Radio-echo sounding on the Ghulkin Glacier in the Karakoram Mountains. Scientia Sinica, Series B. 26: 3: 297-307.

Dyhrenfruth, G.O., Ertl, H. and Rooch, A. (1939) Baltoro: ein Himlaya-Buch. Basel.

Dyhrenfurth, G.O. (1948) Gletscherkundliche Beobachtungen in Karakoram. Leben und Umwelt, no. 5: 1-9.

Edwards, J. I. (1960) The Batura Mustagh Expedition. Alpine Journal, 65: 300: 48-52.

Featherstone, B.K. (1926) The Biafo Glacier. Geographical Journal, 62: 351-354.

Ferguson, R.I. (1982) Sediment yields, sources, and fluctuations in the Karakoram Mountains. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 139: Part 5: 656.

Ferguson, R.I. (1985) Runoff from glacierized mountains; a model for annual variation and its forecasting. Water Resources Research, 21: 5: 702-708.

Finsterwalder, R. (1935) On the Map of the Zemu Glacier. Himalayan Journal, no. 7: 125-138.

Finsterwalder, R. (1937) Die gletscher des Nanga Parbat. Glaziologische Arbeiten der Deustchen Himalaya-Expedition 1934 und ihre Ergebnisse. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde, 25, 57-108.

Finsterwalder, R. (1960) German glaciological and geological expedition to the Batura, Mustagh and Rakaposhi Range. Journal of Glaciology, 3: 28: 787-788.

Finsterwalder, R. and Pillewizer, W. (1939) Photogrammetric studies of glaciers of High Asia. Himalayan Journal, no. 11: 107-113.

rancis, M.R., Miller, K.J. and Dong, Z.B. (1984) Impulse radar ice-depth sounding of the Ghulkin glacier. (In: Miller, K.J., ed., The International Karakoram Project, vol. II., 111-123. Cambridge University Press: Great Britain.)

Freeberne, M. (1965) Glacial meltwater resources in China. Geographical Journal, 131(1): 57-60.

Frey, P. (1993) Aspects of energy balance of the Miar Glacier, Karakoram Mountains, Pakistan. Unpublished M.A. Thesis. Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Gardner, J.S. (1986) Recent fluctuations of Rakhiot glacier, Nanga Parbat, Punjab Himalaya, Pakistan. Journal of Glaciology, 32(112): 527-529.

Gardner, J.S. and Jones, N.K. (1990) Sediment transport and yield at the Rakhiot Glacier, Nanga Parbat, Punjab Himalaya. Geomorphology and Quaternary of Pakistan.

Gardner, J.S. and Hewitt, K. (1990) The Bualtar Rockfalls and a glacial transport response. Journal of Glaciology.

Gardner, J.S. and Hewitt, K. (1990) A surge of Bualtar Glacier, Kararoram Range, Pakistan: a possible landslide trigger. Journal of Glaciology, 36(123): 159-162.

Glennie, E.A. (1956) Gravity data and crustal warping in Northwest Pakistan and adjacent parts of India. Royal Astronomical Society Monthly Notices. Geophysics. Suppl. , 7: 4: 162-175.

Goudie, A.S., Jones, D.K.C. and Brunsden, D. (1984) Recent fluctuations in some glaciers of the Western Karakoram mountains, Hunza, Pakistan. (In: Miller, K.J., ed., The International Karakoram Project, vol. II., 411-455. Cambridge University Press: Great Britain.)

Goudie, A.S., Rendell, H.M. and Bull, A. (1984) The loess of Tajik SSR. (In: Miller, K.J., ed., The International Karakoram Project, vol. I. 399-412. Cambridge University Press: Great Britain.)

Grant, I.H.L. and Mason, K. (1940) The Upper Shayok Glacier, 1939. Himalayan Journal, 12, 52-63.

Grenard, F. (1929) Les Glaciers de Karakoram. Revue de Geogr Alp, 17(2): 458-463.

Gunther, A.E. (1954) The glaciers of the Kulu-Spiti Divide. Alpine Journal, 59: 288-298.

Hess, H. (1939) Gletscherkundliches aus dem Karakoram. Petermanns Geographishe Mitteilungen, 35: 91-92.

Hewitt, K. (1961) Glaciers and the Indus, Indus, 2(9): 4-14.

Hewitt, K. (1968) Records of natural damming and related events. Indus, 10(4): 4-14.

Hewitt, K. (1969) Glacier surges in the Karakoram Himalaya (Central Asia). Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 6(4): 1009-1018.

Hewitt, K. (1986) The Upper Indus snow belts: Snowfall and sources of water yield. (In: Hewitt, K., ed., Snow and Ice Hydrology Project Annual Report 1985, 58-63. Wilfrid Laurier University: Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.)

Hewitt, K. (1987) Himalayan Glaciers and snowfields: research into a major water resource. Report to International Development Research Council, Mimeo.

Hewitt, K. (1989) The altitudinal organization of Karakoram geomorphology. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde, 76: 9-32.

Hewitt, K. and MacDonald, K.I. (1988) Systems of large landslides along a glacier margin in the Karakoram Himalaya. Paper presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Geographers: Saint Mary's University, Halifax.

Hewitt, K., Wake, C., Young, G. J. and David, C. (1989) Hydrological investigations at Biafo Glacier, Karakoram Himalaya, Pakistan: an important source of water for the Indus River. Annals of Glaciology, 13: 103-108.

Hobbs, W.H. (1911) Characteristics of existing Glaciers. Macmillan: New York.

Huang, M. (1990) On the temperature distribution of glaciers in China. Journal of Glaciology, 36(123): 210-216.

Huang, M., Sun, Z. and Liu, Z. (1981) A kinematical study on terminus of the Batura glacier. Kexue Tongbao (Monthly Journal of Science), 26(6): 544-547.

Hunt, J. and Cooke, C.R. (1938) A winter visit to the Zemu Glacier. Himalayan Journal, 10: 49-70.

Jijun, L., Derbyshire, E. and Xu, S. (1984) Glacial and paraglacial sediments of the Hunza Valley, North West Karakoram, Pakistan: a preliminary analysis. (In: Miller, K.J., ed., The International Karakoram Project, vol. II, 496-535. Cambridge University Press: Great Britain.)

Johnson, G. (1988) Glacier-dammed lakes and mass movement-dammed lakes, Upper Hunza valley, Pakistan. Unpublished paper: Snow and Ice Hydrology Project, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Canada.

Kelly, R.E.J. (1988) An investigation into the relationship between discharge and suspended sediment concentration and yield for a proglacial river in the Karakoram. Unpublished B.Sc. Thesis. University of Manchester, Manchester.

Kelly, R.E.J. (1988) Preliminary investigations into the formation and drainage of the glacially-dammed Virijerab Lake, Shimshal Valley, Northern areas, Pakistan. Unpublished Paper. Snow and Ice Hydrology Project, Wilfrid Laurier University: Waterloo, Canada.

Kelly, R.E.J. (1990) Characteristic discharge and suspended-sediment relationships in two glacier-fed rivers in the Karakoram. Unpublished M.A. thesis. Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Khan, M. (1989) Ablation on Barpu Glacier Karakoram Himalaya, Pakistan: a study of melt processes on a faceted, debris-covered ice surface. Unpublished M.A. Thesis. Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada,

Kick, W. (1956) Chogo Lungma Glacier, Karakoram. Geographical Journal, 122: 93-96.

Kick, W. (1956) Der Chogo-Lungma Gletscher im Karakoram. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde, 3: 335-347.

Kick, W. (1958) Exceptional glacier advances in the Karakoram. Journal of Glaciology, 3(23): 229.

Kick, W. (1958) An Nanga-Parbat Gletschern. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Alpenvereins, 12: 194.

Kick, W. (1960) The First Glaciologists in Central Asia. Journal of Glaciology, 28: 687-692.

Kick, W. (1964) Der Chogo-Lungma Gletscher in Karakoram II. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde, 5(1): 19-24.

Kick, W. (1969) Comments on the regime of the Afgan glacier. Journal of Glaciology,8(54): 493-494.

Kick, W. (1977) Eisgeschwindikeitsmessungen an Gletschern Hochaisens: Geschichte-Technik-Ergebnisse. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde, 13: 1-2: 7-22.

Kick, W. (1980) Material for a glacier inventory of the Indus drainage basin - the Nanga Parbat massif. (In: Clarke, R.T., ed., International Workshop on the World Glacier Inventory, Aletsch Ecological Centre, Riederalp, Ct. Valais, Switzerland, 17-22 September 1978. Proceedings. International Association of Hydrological Sciences. IAHS/AISH Publication, no. 126: 105-109.)

Kick, W. (1986) Glacier mapping for an inventory of the Indus drainage basin: current state and future possibilities. (In: Richardson, E.L. ed., Symposium on Glacier Mapping and Surveying, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, 26-29 August 1985. Proceedings. Annals of Glaciology, vol. 8: 102-105.)

Kou, Y., Xie, W. and Xiao, S. (1982) The heat balance on glacial surfaces in China. Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Cryopedology. Academia Sinica. Memoirs,, 3, 91-101.

Kuhn, M. (1993) Methods of assessing the effects of climatic changes on snow and glacier hydrology. (In: Young, G.J., ed., Snow and Glacier Hydrology. International Symposium, Kathmandu, Nepal, 16-21 November 1992. Proceedings. International Association of Hydrological Sciences. IAHS/AISH Publication, no. 218: 135-144.)

Kuz'michenok, V.A. (1989) Teknologiya i vozmozhnosti aerotopograficheskogo kartografirovaniya izmeneniy lednikov (no primere oledeneniya khrebta Akshiyrak) [Technology and possibilities of airborne topographic mapping of glaciers fluctuations (with reference to the Akshiyarak Range)]. Materialy Glyatsiologischeskikh Issledovaniy, 67: 80-87.

Lai, Z. (1984) Characteristics of glacial flood - example of rivers in Xinjiang. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 6(2): 45-52.

Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology (1980) The expedition and study on the Batura glacier in Karakoram mountains. Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology: Lanzhou.

Lehr, P. and Horvath, E. (1975) Glaciers of China. (In: Mountain Glaciers of Northern Hemisphere, 449-475. 1: U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory: US.)

Li, J., Cai, X. and Li, N. (1980) Basic features of the meltwater of the Batura Glacier. (In: Professional Papers on the Batura Glacier, Karakoram Mountains, 111-132. Beijing. Science Press.)

Li, J. and Xu, S. (1984) The distribution of glaciers on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and its relationship to atmospheric circulations. (In: Miller, K.J., ed., The International Karakoram Project, vol. I, 84-93. Cambridge University Press: Great Britain.)

Li, N., Li, J. and Cai, X. (1980) Calculating the peak discharge of the Batura River. (In: Professional Papers on the Batura Glacier, Karakoram Mountains, 133-145. Beijing. Science Press.)

Li, N., Li, J. and Cai, X. (1980) Hydrological features of the Batura Glacier region, Karakoram. (In: Proceedings of Symposium on Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, Symposium on Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, Peking, May 25 - June 1, 1980. 237-238. Academia Sinica: Peking.)

Li, N., Li, J. and Cai, X. (1981) Discussion on some hydrological features of the Batura Glacier, Karakoram. Journal of Glaciology and Cryopedology, 3(2): 7-12.

Liu, G. (1980) The climate of the Batura glacier and its adjacent areas. (In: Professional Papers on the Batura Glacier, Karakoram Mountains, 107-108. Beijing. Science Press.)

Loewe, F. (1959) Some observations of the radiation budget and of the ablation of glacier ice in the Nanga Parbat Region. Pakistan Journal of Science, 11(5): 227-236.

Loewe, F. (1961) Glaciers of Nanga Parbat. Pakistan Geographical Review, 16(1): 19-24.

Longstaff, T.G. (1910) Glacier exploration in the Eastern Karakoram. Geographical Journal, 35(6): 622-658.

Longstaff, T.G. (1920) The Karambar Glaciers. The Alpine Journal, 33: 159.

L.S. (1955) Crue extraordinaire du Glacier de Khutis (Karakoram). Die Alpen, 153-154.

MacBryde, D.H., et al. (1964) Scientific report of studies carried out on the Minapin Glacier by members of the Cambridge Expedition to Nagir, Karakoram, 1961. Cambridge University: Cambridge.

MacDonald, K.I. (1989) Impacts of glacier-related landslides on the settlement at Hopar, Karakoram Himalaya. Annals of Glaciology, 13: 185-188.

Mason, K. (1928) Exploration of the Shaksgam Valley and Aghil Range. Indian Geological Survey Records, 22: 24-36.

Mason, K. (1928) Note on Sir Francis Younghusband's Urdok Glacier. Geographical Journal, 71: 275-277.

Mason, K. (1929) Indus floods and Shyok glaciers. Himalayan Journal, 1, 10-20.

Mason, K. (1930) The glaciers of the Karakoram and the neighborhood. Records of the Geological Society of India, 63: 2: 214-278.

Mason, K. (1931) Expedition notes: tours in the Gilgit Agency. Himalayan Journal, 3: 110-115.

Mason, K. (1932) The Upper Shyok Glaciers. Alpine Journal, 44: 237-245.

Mason, K. (1935) The study of the threatening glaciers. Geographical Journal, 85: 24-41.

Mason, K. (1940) Upper Shayok Glaciers, 1939. Himalayan Journal, 12: 52-65.

Mattson, L.E. and Gardner, J.S. (1989.) Energy exchanges and the ablation rates on the debris-covered Rakhiot Glacier, Pakistan. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde, 25(1): 17-32.

Mattson, L. E., Gardner, J.S. and Young, G.J. (1993) Ablation on debris covered glaciers: an example from the Rakhiot Glacier, Punjab, Himalaya. (In: Young, G.J., ed., Snow and Glacier Hydrology. International Symposium, Kathmandu, Nepal, 16-21 November 1992. Proceedings. International Association of Hydrological Sciences. IAHS/AISH Publication, no. 218: 289-296.)

Mercer, J.H. (1963) Glacier Variations in the Karakoram. Glaciological Notes, 14: 19-33.

Morris, C.J. (1928) Some valleys and glaciers in Hunza. Geographical Journal, 71: 513-537.

Morris, T.O. (1938) The Bain Boulder Bed; a glacial episode in the Siwalik Series of the Marwat Kund Range and Sheik Budin, North West Frontier Province. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 94: 385-421.

Noack, E.F. (1977) Journey to the Hispar glacier. Geographical Magazine, 50: 55-62.

Orombelli, G. (1971) Une vista al ghiacciaio sachen gruppo del Nanga Parbat, Pakistan Occidentale. Bollettino del comitato Glaciologico Italiano, ser 2: 19: 43-46.

Ostreich, K. (1911-1912) Der Tschogletscher in Baltistan. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde, 6: 1-30.

Oswald, G.K.A. (1984) Ice depth radio echo-soundings techniques employed on the Hispar and Ghulkin glaciers. (In: Miller, K.J., ed., The International Karakoram Project, vol. II, 86-93. Cambridge University Press: Great Britain.)

Perrott, F.A. and Goudie, A.S. (1984) Techniques for the study of glacial fluctuations. (In: Miller, K.J., ed., The International Karakoram Project, vol. I, 94-100. Cambridge University Press: Great Britain.)

Pfannel, H. (1904) Biafo, 1902. Mitteilungen der Geografishe Geselleschaft, 47: 255.

Pillewizer, W. (1956) Der Rakhiot-Gletscher am Nanga Parbat im Jahre 1954. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde, 3(2): 181-194.

Pillewizer, W. (1957) Bewegungsstudien an Karakoram-gletschern. Petermanns Geogrrafishe Mitteilungen Erganzunsheft, 262: 53-60.

Pillewizer, W. (1958) Neue Erkentnisse uber die Blockbewegung der Gletscher. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde, 4(1-2): 23-33.

Porter, S.C. (1970) Quarternary glacial record in Swat Kohistan, West Pakistan. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 81(5): 1421-1446.

Pourchet, M., Pinglot, J.F., Reynaud, L. and Holdsworth, G. (1988) Identification of Chernobyl fall-out as a new reference level in Northern Hemisphere glaciers. Journal of Glaciology, 34: 183-187.

Preller, C. (1924) The glacier period in the valleys of Upper Indus and Kashmir. Scottish Geographical Magazine, 40: 20-27.

Qu, Y. and Kang, E. (1990) A summary of researches on glacial water sources in China. (In: Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Glaciology and Geocryology, Chinese Society of Geography, Ed., [In Chinese]: 16-17. Gansu People's Press: Lanzhou.)

Rabot, C. (1904) Exploration des glaciers Karakoram. La Geogr. , 9: 374-376.

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