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A Chronicle of Distinction: From the Arctic to the Andes
Roger Barry Symposium
8, 9 & 10 August 2004

A personal perspective on a half century of climate science

Roger G. Barry

Climatology is a young science, spanning barely half a century, and I have indeed been fortunate to be part of most of it. While some true pioneers—J. von Hann, V. Koeppen, R. Geiger and C. E. P Brooks—were before my time, I did know personally almost all of the players identified by Peter Lamb (2002) in his account of the “climate revolution”: F. K. Hare (my advisor), R. A. Bryson, H. H. Lamb, H. Flohn, J. M. Mitchell, Jr., and J. Namias. I also met M. I. Budyko, E. B. Kraus, and H. E. Landsberg, as well as others not mentioned by Lamb—A. Berger, A. Court, K. Kondratyev, F. Lauscher, G. Manley, R. Mather, S. Schneider, and C. Troll. For this reason, tracing my personal path and some of its determinants is a key to understanding the histories of my graduate students at University of Colorado and their subsequent directions.

Early Background and Training

Following an early teenage interest in weather observations, my meteorological training began when I joined the UK Meteorological Office as a scientific assistant in 1952. The eight-week basic training at Stanmore Meteorological Training School in north London included an introduction to meteorology, synoptic observations, pilot balloons, coding and decoding weather reports, and plotting chart data and tephigrams from Global Telecommunication System (GTS) teletype reports. I performed these tasks on shift work at the Royal Air Force (RAF) Station Worksop in Nottinghamshire, England, from 1952 to 1954. During this time, I also served two brief stints at a station in East Yorkshire, where I was whisked at short notice in the back seat of a Meteor jet fighter. In the evenings I took correspondence courses in advanced-level mathematics and ordinary level physics. Failing the eyesight test for military service, and thereby benefiting from two “free” years, I applied for a university program in geography—the first university attendee in the family—and was fortunate to receive financial support from the Sheffield City Council. My climatological mentor at the University of Liverpool was Stan Gregory, later the founding editor of the (International) Journal of Climatology. As part of the honours BA degree, I began a dissertation on weather types in Scotland, influenced by R. B. M. Levick's 1955 paper in Weather magazine. I met Levick at a Royal Meteorological Society (RMS) meeting in London, and that was my introduction to professional meteorology.

In June 1956, Professor F. Kenneth Hare of McGill University visited the University of Liverpool, sponsored by the British Council. Professor Hare's lectures on Arctic meteorology and Labrador-Ungava stimulated me to pursue a master's degree at McGill University after graduating in 1957. After summer school in Stansted, Quebec, and further meteorological training at Dorval Airport to satisfy the Canadian Meteorological Service, I became one of four graduate student weather observers. Supervised by a senior observer, I spent 12 months of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) at the McGill Subarctic Research Laboratory in Schefferville, Quebec, making weather observations and reports for the Knob Lake station. My modest IGY contribution involved filing auroral reports on micro cards. Since the Knob Lake station was near the zone of maximum auroral frequency, we saw numerous and unusual auroral displays. I also attended a lecture course offered by the Lab director, Jack D. Ives, about the physical geography and Quaternary history of northeast Canada. I subsequently began researching the synoptic climatology of the Labrador-Ungava Peninsula (Barry 1959, 1960a, 1960b). The following year in Montreal, I worked with the Arctic Meteorology Research Group (AMRG) plotting 25 mb data and meridional temperature and wind cross-sections. I attended courses offered by F. K. Hare (meteorology and geographic methodology) and Sven Orvig (physical meteorology) in Geography, and Walter Hitschfeld (thermodynamics) in Physics. I also attended discussions with PhD candidate Barney Boville, Warren Godson (advisor to the AMRG), Morley Thomas of the Canadian Meteorological Service, and meteorological colleagues Mona MacFarlane, Cynthia Wilson, Ian Jackson, and John Raynor. As stated in another context, “it takes a village...” I conducted the data analysis for my MS thesis using punched card sorting and a desk calculator, and I later wrote a note for Erdkunde on the geographical applications of punched cards.

After returning to Liverpool through a Leverhulme Fellowship to begin a PhD (at Stan Gregory's encouragement), I spent months learning to program in machine language the first-generation English Electric “Deuce” computer to analyze moisture contents, transport, and flux divergence over Labrador-Ungava. The data on punched cards were shipped from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), Asheville, in a large wooden crate. I also began to learn Russian through a BBC radio program, partly with the ambition to read the related work of M. Budyko and others. During this doctoral work, completed in 1965 at the University of Southampton, I was fortunate to meet and talk with H. H. Lamb, A. G. Matthewman, and G. B. Tucker at the Meteorological Office in London.

Teaching and Research in the UK

In October 1960, I was appointed as an assistant lecturer at the University of Southampton, where I taught weather and climate courses in all three years of the BA/BS programs. I also introduced statistical methods into the cartography classes, developed a biogeography course, and held weekly tutorials with student groups in each of the three years. My students included A. H. Perry, M. J. Clark, H. M. French, and R. S. Bradley. When appropriate, C. Ian Jackson (a contemporary at McGill and then at the London School of Economics) joined forces with me to brief third-year climate students on the papers to be read at the Royal Meteorological Society meetings in London. My doctoral work was further sidetracked by studies of the synoptic climate of south-central England for a British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting and book chapter. These studies involved using a Pegasus computer with data entry on paper tape (Barry 1963, 1964b). I also supervised my first honors student dissertation by Ruth (Morris) Chambers on soil temperatures in the New Forest (Morris and Barry 1963). While she was a master's degree student, we collaborated on albedo research using instrumentation attached to a University of Southampton Air Squadron “Chipmunk,” thanks to an enthusiastic Commanding Officer and the Electrical Engineering Department's instrument shop (Barry and Chambers 1966a, 1966b). John Davies, John Monteith, M. J. Blackwell, and I also planned to prepare an energy budget atlas for Great Britain, but it had to be cancelled when the Meteorological Office declined to allow Blackwell to perform this work and J. Davies left for Canada.

In summer 1963 and spring 1964, Geoff Hattersley-Smith led Operation Tanquary (at Tanquary Fjord, Northwest Territories, Canada), where I carried out meteorological studies for the Defense Research Board of Canada (Barry 1964a). This research, and the completion of my PhD in 1965 (Barry 1967), served as a springboard for my sabbatical year in Ottawa at the Geographical Branch, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, then directed by J. D. Ives, working on the Arctic front (Barry 1967a) and the climatology of Baffin Island and northeastern Canada (Barry 1967b). While there, I had the luxury of a research assistant, Simon Fogarasi, and programming support (Barry and Fogarasi 1968). I also visited the field station of the Geographical Branch at Inugsuin Fjord and viewed the Barnes Ice Cap and surrounding areas by helicopter.

While still in England, I worked with Joyce Lambert of the Botany Department to plan and develop a combined Botany-Geography honours degree. The first graduate, Lynn Drapier, was employed at the Geographical Branch, Ottawa, and subsequently became a consultant on many government projects. I was also invited to contribute to Models in Geography (Barry 1967c) and thus began an unimagined, almost 40-year collaboration with Dick Chorley by building on a draft of Atmosphere, Weather and Climate, (initially rejected by McGraw Hill, and published by Methuen, which later became a part of Routledge), that he had prepared with a schoolteacher (Barry and Chorley 1968, 2003).

New Directions

In 1967, the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Canada, decided to eliminate the Geographical Branch where I was temporarily working, and redistribute its functions among other agencies. Jack Ives and John Andrews subsequently took positions at the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR), located at the University of Colorado at Boulder. I visited INSTAAR and interviewed for a position in September 1967 before returning to England. After considering other opportunities at the University of East Anglia's (UEA) new School of Environmental Science (led by K. M. Clayton), and at the University of British Columbia, I decided to accept a position at INSTAAR in October 1968 as an Associate Professor, affiliated with Geography and rostered in the Graduate School. My first two graduate students—Ross Reynolds (from Reading, UK) and Waltraud Brinkmann—came through the Geography Department, and in Brinkmann's case followed the completion of a master's degree with Ruth Chambers at University of Calgary. Brinkmann's classic work on Boulder's downslope windstorms was completed in cooperation with several National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists, such as Doug Lilly, Ed Zipser, and Paul Julian.

My initial work focused on the climate and glaciation of Baffin Island, and was conducted with John Andrews and graduate students John Jacobs and Ron Weaver (Andrews et al. 1970, Barry et al. 1972, Barry and Jacobs 1973), and included fieldwork on the Boas Glacier in 1970. However, Jacobs's and Weaver's interest in sea ice led to work on land-fast ice in Home Bay (Jacobs et al. 1975, Weaver et al. 1976). Based at Cape Dyer, Jacobs and I used an NCAR Queenair aircraft to study pack ice in Davis Strait during spring 1971. Ron Weaver coordinated some of this work while I was on leave from 1975 to 1976, and this collaboration facilitated our subsequent work together at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Later, similar work was performed on ice conditions off northern Alaska with J. Rogers, R. E. Moritz (Barry et al. 1979), and Gary Wohl, supported by the Offshore Continental Shelf Assessment Program (OCSEAP).

During this time, I also analyzed the 1952 to 1970 climatological data record from Front Range, Colorado, supported by my first independent National Science Foundation (NSF) award. After completing the Front Range data analysis (Barry 1973b), I participated in the San Juan Ecology Project, directed by Jack Ives. I subsequently studied historical climatology in the Southwest with R. S. Bradley, who had been an undergraduate student at Southampton University (Bradley and Barry 1973). Ray Bradley studied the historical climatology of the Rocky Mountain states (Bradley and Barry 1972) and later broadened his research focus to include climate change on many time scales. Richard Armstrong played a key role in the subsequent San Juan Avalanche Project and snow science program, which led several years later to his affiliation with NSIDC. The International Biological Program Tundra Biome Project, directed for Alaska by Jerry Brown, and for the Alpine component by J. D. Ives, allowed Ellsworth LeDrew to conduct energy budget studies on Niwot Ridge (Dingman et al. 1980, Barry et al. 1981). LeDrew developed comparative alpine/arctic energy balance analyses and later investigated arctic synoptic systems for his doctoral thesis.

A team-taught course in arctic and alpine environments gave rise to an edited volume of the same title (Ives and Barry 1974), while former Southampton student Allen Perry (then at the University of Swansea) and I completed a book on synoptic climatology (Barry and Perry 1973a) and several related papers (Barry and Perry 1969, 1973b).

New graduate students sparked additional interests. Jill (Williams) Jaeger arrived on a fellowship and we began the first global Ice Age experiment using a general circulation model, collaborating with Warren Washington at NCAR (Barry 1973a, Williams et al. 1974). A proposed intercomparison of early Ice Age model results (involving NCAR, Oregon State University, and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory) by the same authors was approved for NSF funding but never developed due to the groups' unwillingness to share their results, in contrast to many recent intercomparison projects. Soon afterwards, Jeff Rogers and Gerry Meehl collaborated with Harry van Loon at NCAR on teleconnection studies and Meehl then went on to modeling analyses with W. M. Washington, Jr.

From 1968 to 1978, I focused on paleoclimatology and participated in several meetings of the American Quaternary Association and Congresses of the International Quaternary Association (Paris and the Dauphine, 1969; Christchurch, New Zealand, 1973; Birmingham, 1977; and Moscow and Georgia, 1982). From 1974 to 1977, I was president of the Inter-Congress Committee on Paleoclimatology, laying the groundwork for subsequent Commission activities by Andre Berger and Alayne Street-Perrott, who had done her master's degree work through INSTAAR. Alan Hecht at NSF played an important role in fostering paleoclimatic research in the United States (Barry et al. 1979, Hecht et al. 1979) and this led to my serving as an advisor, together with John E. Kutzbach, to Hal Fritts at the Tree Ring Laboratory, located at the University of Arizona. At a workshop there I met Henry Diaz, who later transferred from NCDC to Boulder to become one of my PhD students. We collaborated on several subsequent climate change studies (Diaz et al. 1982, Moses et al. 1983). I pursued studies on the Laurentide Ice Sheet climate with John Andrews, Jack Ives, Larry Williams, and others (Williams et al. 1972, Brinkmann and Barry 1972, Barry 1973a, Williams et al. 1974, Williams and Barry 1974,Ives et al. 1975, Barry et al. 1975, Andrews and Barry 1978). I also co-directed Bill McCoy's PhD dissertation on lake level investigations.

From 1975 to 1976, I took sabbatical leave with a faculty fellowship and spent six months at the Department of Biogeography and Geomorphology in the Research School for Pacific Studies at the Australian National University in Canberra. I worked on the rainfall climatology of New Guinea (Barry 1978b) and during two weeks at Pindaunde in the Bismarck Range of Papua New Guinea, I undertook a field program on the energy budget and soil temperature conditions, which complemented Jeremy Smith's vegetation studies (Barry 1980). I also outlined a book, Mountain Weather and Climate, which was published five years later (Barry 1981). From March to April 1976, I held an Erskine Fellowship at Canterbury University in Christchurch, New Zealand, where I visited glaciers in the Southern Alps and met David Greenland, who later came to the Mountain Research Station at the University of Colorado. From 1976 to 1977, I served as Acting Director of INSTAAR, during which time the Mountain Research Station recruited Misha Plam as director and Pat Webber's Plant Ecology Group acquired major wet lab space.

In the late 1970s, climate research began to address the impacts of greenhouse gas-induced warming and my participation in a number of workshops led to review articles and a few student theses. Jill Jaeger at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) organized a conference in 1977 (Barry 1978a), and I participated in conferences on the cryospheric impacts of warming held in the United States and Canada. I contributed to Department of Energy (DoE) reviews of carbon dioxide-induced climatic change effects (Barry 1985, 1991). The DoE's Carbon Cycle program supported Florence Tramoni's and Michael Palecki's student projects on lake freeze-up and break-up, to which Jeff Key and Jim Maslanik contributed. Richard Heede made an independent assessment of energy stocks in consultation with Will Kellogg at NCAR. Links between INSTAAR and the Laboratory for the Application of Remote Sensing (LARS) at Purdue University provided another direction in remote sensing applications, initiated by Jack Ives's work with NASA (code PY) on the Front Range. This collaboration led to some early use of Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) images to analyze seasonal snow cover recession and forest cover and also led to a dissertation by Stewart Waterman. It also provided a basis for later remote sensing studies in the Arctic using visible and passive microwave images.

The World Data Center for Glaciology

From 1973 to 1977, I was a member of the Glaciology Committee of the Polar Research Board, under the chairmanship of Charles Bentley, which brought me into contact with many of the leading glaciologists of the day. In 1976, Alan H. Shapley, Director of the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) at NOAA, and Jack Ives presented a management plan to the Polar Research Board to operate the World Data Center-A for Glaciology at the University of Colorado, with funding support from NOAA NGDC. The library and glacier photo collections at the US Geological Survey's Glaciology Project Office in Tacoma, WA, were transferred to Boulder in November 1976 and we hired the first staff members. Ann Brennan Thomas, the second hire, worked at the center until 1998, and Greg Scharfen, hired in 1978, remains an employee. An important item in the small annual budget was support for working visits by scientists; these included Robert Vivian from the Institute of Alpine Geography in Grenoble, France, and Carl Benson and William Stringer from the University of Alaska. The major initial goal was to expand into areas of interest to NOAA, so we surveyed sea ice charts and snow cover maps (WDC for Glaciology 1979). Graduate student Rob Crane participated in these surveys. Additional resources allowed us to survey ice core data (MacKinnon 1980), resulting in a document that NSF used in its program planning.

The first digital data management request to the WDC came when Dwayne Anderson, director of the Office of Polar Programs (OPP), asked the WDC to archive airborne geomagnetic and radio-echo sounding data for Greenland. Ed Zipser, then of NCAR, suggested the first large data set to be archived at the WDC: the collection of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Line Scan (OLS) images (positive transparencies). The University of Wisconsin could no longer store the collection, so we agreed to provide the archive space if NCAR would pay for the shipping. Greg Scharfen assumed responsibility for the positive-transparency archive, and it was managed by undergraduate students, many of them on work-study programs.

In 1981, NOAA Environmental Data and Information Service (EDIS) Director Thomas Potter invited other agency representatives to a briefing I gave at NOAA on the work of the WDC for Glaciology, and Potter encouraged us to seek projects of national interest. Subsequently, we became involved in managing passive microwave data with Stan Wilson of NASA's Polar Oceanography program and we also established links with the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab (CRREL) in Hanover, New Hampshire.

In 1982, following recommendations by the Polar Research Board, Marjorie Courain, director of the National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS), authorized the WDC to assume the title National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). This enhanced our ability to seek multiagency support and soon led to activities on behalf of NASA for passive microwave data. NSIDC obtained funding for the DMSP archive from NOAA programs and grants. Scientists expressed considerable interest in the 0.6 km direct readout products, and were also interested in the consistent resolution of the 5.4 km products. Andrew Carleton, Greg Scharfen, and others used these products in their dissertation work, and other researchers used the data to produce mosaic products of the polar regions, global nighttime lights, and the tropical highly reflective cloud atlas. A later study supported by Steve Goodman (Barry et al.1994) used DMSP products to research global nighttime lightning frequency. When digital DMSP OLS data became available, the Air Force and NGDC planned a digital archive, but NSIDC's initial participation in this activity for snow and ice products was eventually discontinued due to problems with funding and timely service to our customers. NSIDC transferred the film archive (over a million pieces of OLS imagery) to the Federal Records Center in Denver.

Early activities for WDC-A for Glaciology included visiting the WDC-B for Glaciology in the Soviet Union. Vladimir M. Kotlyakov and Natalya Dreyer from the Institute of Geography at the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow, also visited WDC-A for Glaciology in 1978 to obtain material for the World Atlas of Snow and Ice Resources (published in 1997). Dean Colin Bull (of Ohio State University, representing the Polar Research Board and Committee on Geophysical Data) and I, accompanied by Institute of Geography scientist Alya Voloshina, met with glaciologists at institutes in Moscow (World Data Center-B), Leningrad (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute), Tashkent (Central Asian Hydro-Meteorological Institute, SANIGMI), and Almaty, Kazakhstan (Institute of Geography), at which I presented talks in Russian. I had met several of these glaciologists in 1978 at the World Glacier Inventory meeting in Riederalp, Switzerland (organized by Fritz Mueller). Pembroke Hart, Director of the WDC-A Coordination Office at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, helped facilitate international WDC activities. In 1999, the letter designations for the World Data Centers in different countries were dropped.

Cryosphere-Climate Initiatives in CIRES

The Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) Climate Program was developed in the late 1970s. The National Academy of Sciences had developed the framework for a National Climate Plan from 1973 to 1975, and published a report, Understanding Climate Change - a Program for Action, in 1975. This report originated in a 1972 conference at Brown University in Providence, RI, "The present interglacial: how and when will it end?" (Kukla et al. 1972) at which I was a participant (Andrews et al. 1972). The meeting organizers, George Kukla and Robert Matthews, subsequently wrote to President Nixon about the need to recognize, and if possible, predict climatic fluctuations that might signal the onset of renewed glaciation.

National climate programs within both NSF and NOAA owe much to the vision of Joe Fletcher of Ice Island T-3 fame. Fletcher, then director of the NSF Office of Polar Programs and later deputy director of NOAA' s Environmental Research Laboratories (ERL), recruited Uwe Radok from the Meteorology Department at the University of Melbourne, Australia, for a position in the NSF, where they helped develop the Office of Climate Dynamics (OCD). CIRES subsequently decided to organize a research program in climate dynamics for NOAA, and in September 1977, Radok came to Boulder to lead this effort. The CIRES Climate Research Project identified three broad objectives:

  • Construct a global data set to describe climatic fluctuations during the past 130 years over oceans and continents
  • Conduct interpretive diagnostic studies of those climatic fluctuations on time scales ranging from one month to decades
  • Conduct modeling studies of polar ice sheets to clarify their evolution and their responses to climatic change

In 1980, my appointment at INSTAAR was transferred to CIRES. The ten WDC for Glaciology staffmembers, including secretary Margaret Strauch, were also transferred. My interests gradually shifted from paleoclimate and Quaternary glaciations to modern climate-cryosphere processes. I joined the climate group, together with Colin Ramage and Uwe Radok, at a time when both tropical climate and Greenland Ice Sheet climate were receiving attention. Uwe Radok led a project on the characteristics of the Greenland Ice Sheet, in which I was involved (Barry and Kiladis 1982).

In the early 1980s, researchers began using the DMSP image archive in conjunction with passive microwave data from NASA and the planned DMSP Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) products through collaboration with NASA's Pilot Ocean Data System (PODS), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). These data sets were critical to the research directions of Rob Crane, Mark Anderson, Garry Wohl, and later, Axel Schweiger. The plan was to use PODS software installed on a VAX 750 computer at NSIDC. Eventually, Vince Troisi led in-house software development. The DMSP SSM/I satellite was not launched until 1987, four years after planning began, but by then, NSIDC had embarked on an active program of archiving data products from remote sensing. Graduate students Andrew Carleton (using DMSP imagery), and Rob Crane, Mark Anderson and Axel Schweiger (using Scanning Multicultural Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) data) produced related remote sensing dissertations.

During this period, several students completed dissertations independent of these main strands of funding support but close to my interests. Dissertation topics included synoptic/dynamic climatology studies (Rich Keen, George Kiladis, Leslie Tarleton and Tim Brown), historical climatology (John Newell), and snow cover modeling (Susan Marshall and Mike Morassutti). Several of these students worked closely with other scientists in NOAA, NCAR, and the University. Additionally, I served as associate director for the Atmospheric and Climate Dynamics Division from 1984 to 1985. The group then included about 20 researchers, including five CIRES Fellows (including myself, Colin Ramage, Uwe Radok, Howard Hanson, and Henry Diaz). At the time, the CIRES Fellows lacked a regular faculty member in the atmospheric sciences, a situation remedied in 1991 with the hire of Konrad Steffen in CIRES and Geography.

International Links

In 1981, I joined Jack Ives on a trip to northwestern China, visiting Urumuqi, Lanzhou, Glacier No.1 in the Tien Shan, and the avalanche research station near Ining, Xinjiang. Gordon Young of Canada accompanied us, and our hosts were Qiu Jiachi (Urumqi), who had studied at the University of Colorado Mountain Research Station, Professor Shi Yafeng, Director of the Institute of Glaciology, Lanzhou, and Kang Ersi, also of the Institute of Glaciology. The visit encouraged China to establish a WDC for Glaciology in 1988, with which NSIDC has enjoyed a very fruitful collaboration.

In 1982, I received a J.S. Guggenheim Fellowship for study of historical snow and ice data. I made extended visits to several key centers: the Scott Polar Research Institute (through Terence Armstrong), the National Polar Research Institute in Tokyo (through Kou Kusunoki), and the Geographical Institute at the University of Bern (through Professor Bruno Messerli). The material I gathered formed the basis for several papers and served as a guide to subsequent data rescue studies.

In 1989 and 1990 I took sabbatical leave. I spent six weeks in Russia, mainly working at the Institute of Geography in Moscow in autumn 1989. I spent spring and summer of 1990 at the Institute of Geography at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, where I lectured on mountain weather and climate and was hosted by Atsumu Ohmura. I returned in 1997 to lecture (in German) on snow and ice and develop work on Synoptic and Dynamic Climatology (Barry and Carleton 2001). In autumn 1994, I spent four months at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven, Germany, researching snow and sea ice albedo (Barry 1996). I also visited the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK, in spring 1997. My next major leave was in spring 2001 at Moscow State University, where I lectured in Russian on snow and ice (sponsored by a Fulbright Teaching Fellowship and hosted by Rudolf Klige and Yuri Vasil'chuk). In spring 2001, I spent three months on sabbatical at the Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE) in Grenoble, France, working on a paper on glacier recession.

Six Russian scientists have made extended visits to NSIDC through the support of Fulbright Fellowships (A. Krenke, O. Solomina, T. Khromova, and I. Zotikov), a NSF-NATO Fellowship (S. Chudinova), and the CIRES Visiting Fellow program (S. Sokratov). Collaboration during these visits resulted in joint publications on glaciers (Khromova et al. 2003, Solomina et al. 2004) and snow cover (Sokratov and Barry 2002).

The various visits to Russia in the 1990s led to many joint data rescue projects facilitated by the US-Russian Bilateral Agreement for Cooperation on the Environment. The main projects involved the following institutions:

  • The Institute of Geography at the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) in Moscow (Alexander Krenke and Lev Kitaev), and the Russian Hydrometeorological Data Center in Obninsk (Slava Razuvaev), for snow cover data
  • The Institute of Geography, RAS, (Vladimir Kotlyakov) for glacier inventory data
  • The Institute for Arctic and Antarctic Research in St. Petersburg (Ivan Frolov and Vasily Smolianitsky), the Global Digital Sea Ice Data Bank (GDSIDB)
  • The Institute of Soil Science, RAS, in Pushchino (David Gilichinsky), for ground temperature data
  • The State Hydrological Institute in St. Petersburg (Valeriy Vuglinsky), for river ice and precipitation data

My visits to China relating to the World Data Center for Glaciology and Cryopedology in Lanzhou, China also generated collaboration. I lectured for two weeks in Beijing, Lanzhou, and Shanghai in 1999, and in 2002 I traveled across the Tibetan Plateau to see the rail bed construction across the permafrost terrain. Chinese researchers have made reciprocal visits to NSIDC.

Consolidation and Expansion

In 1986, the WDC received a new award from the Office of Naval Research under its University Research Initiative (URI). The theme was arctic ocean ice-climate interactions. Russell Schnell, Fred McLaren (just completing his PhD), and I collaborated with the numerical modeling team of Bill Hibler and Erland Schulson at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College. The stability of five-year funding allowed us to hire and train a strong research group, including Jim Maslanik, Mark Serreze, Jeff Key, and Martin Miles, all of whom have built reputations in polar sciences, and Eric Ellefsen. Three of these individuals began advising and co-supervising graduate students, including Rob Silcox, Ciaran Hurst, and Martyn Clark. I also worked with Rob Crane on polar clouds (Crane and Barry 1984) and with Jeff Key on remote sensing and modeling (Key and Barry 1990), through support from NASA's Climate Program (under R. Schiffer).

From 1986 to 1987, Konrad Steffen, from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), was a visiting fellow at CIRES, and through NASA support, stayed a second year working on polar remote sensing and validation of SSM/I sea ice products. In 1991, he was appointed to a faculty position in CIRES and the Department of Geography and this provided the necessary critical mass to establish a Cryospheric and Polar Processes Division at CIRES, for which I served as Associate Director from 1991 to 1998. Cindy Brekke transferred from CIRES to NSIDC in 1991, and replaced Margaret Strauch following Strauch's retirement in December 1993, just as NSIDC was beginning significant expansion.

In the late 1980s, Professor Emeritus Herbert Riehl of Colorado State University came to CIRES. I had read his work on tropical meteorology as an undergraduate. Building on his contacts at the Ministerio del Ambiente (MARNR) in Caracas, Venezuela, Roger Pulwarty and I undertook rainfall studies funded by the NSF Geography Program. Rigoberto Andressen with the Universidad de los Andes (ULA) in Merida, Marta Mata (a former student of Riehl) with the Ministerio del Ambiemte (MARNR) in Caracas, and the Venezuelan Air Force in Maracay assisted with research on precipitation and mountain climate (Pulwarty et al. 1990, 1993). ULA and MARNR attempted to establish a Centro de Estudios Avanzados del Clima Tropical (CEACT), but were limited by a lack of resources. Attempts to link the mountain interests of ULA and University of Colorado did not get off the ground. Nevertheless, I visited the Andes and the rain forest, and used the material in lectures and writing.

In the 1990s, I supervised several students from the local scientific community, including Lauren Hay (through the USGS Water Resources program), Clark King (through the NOAA Environmental Research Laboratory), Dan Bedford (through the University of Colorado's Geography program) (Bedford and Barry 1996), Andrew Tait (who worked with Richard Armstrong), Betsy Forrest, Jim Miller (who worked with Allan Frei), Geir Kvaran (who worked with Ted Scambos), and Eileen McKim. Their thesis and dissertation topics included mountain precipitation and valley winds, snow cover, glacier fluctuations, climate impacts, and the North American monsoon. My own work focused on climate change in mountains (Barry 1990, 1992a, 2003) and the cryosphere (Barry 1992b, 2003), and I collaborated with NSIDC colleagues, especially Mark Serreze and Tingjun Zhang. In the late 1990s I directed graduate students in two new research directions. Shari (Fox) Gearheard studied Inuit traditional knowledge of climatic and environmental change, through my first Arctic Social Science grant from NSF, while Anton Seimon worked on climate and environmental change in the high Andes of Peru (Seimon and Barry 2000) (initially with National Geographic and other small grants and eventually through a NASA Fellowship). Current students Darren Gallant, Maria Tsukernik (working with Mark Serreze), Eileen McKim (working with George Kiladis), and Matt Beedle follow this tradition of disciplinary diversity.

National and International Committee Activities

My first exposure to the National Research Council came through membership in the Glaciology Committee of the Polar Research Board from 1973 to 1977. I enjoyed the broad-reaching deliberations and the opportunities to meet leading scientists in related fields. Consequently, from 1985 to 1986, I served on the Committee on Arctic Integrated Ocean Information Systems of the Marine Board, and on the Glaciology Committee of the Polar Research Board ad hoc Panel on Remote Sensing of Snow and Ice from 1985 to 1987. From 1987 to 1991, I served as a member of the Polar Research Board (chaired by Gunter Weller), and from 1989 to 1990 was a member of the Committee on Human Dimensions of Global Change. Since 2003, I have served on the Committee on Climate Data Records from Operational Satellites.

Although I was involved in climate studies with the WMO in the 1970s, it wasn't until the 1980s that I became involved with sea ice mapping and coding through work on the Sea Ice Grid (SIGRID) code with Bill Markham at the Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) in Canada and Tommy Thompson at the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) in Sweden. This collaboration led to a working group on sea ice under the WMO Commission for Maritime Meteorology, and later to the establishment of a Global Digital Sea Ice Data Bank (GDSIDB). The group was formed at a meeting in St. Petersburg, Russia, in 1991, chaired by Ivan Frolov, the new director of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI). I attended the meeting, along with Vince Troisi. I also attended subsequent meetings in St. Petersburg, Copenhagen, Ottawa, Boulder, and Hamburg. Florence Fetterer also participated in the last three meetings. I also participated in the US-Russia Environmental Working Group Atlas Climatology project, designed to create an electronic arctic climate atlas covering oceanography, sea ice, meteorology, and climate. NSIDC produced the last of these atlases on CD and on the Web. I also participated in international meetings in Seattle and St. Petersburg on the sea ice atlas.

In 1995, I joined the Terrestrial Observation Panel for Climate (TOPC), part of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS). The main task for TOPC was to define the essential climate variables for the cryosphere and develop plans to implement improvements, such as the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) and Permafrost (GTN-P).

In 1988, I attended my first International Permafrost Conference in Trondheim, Norway, and presented the first paper ever on permafrost data (Barry 1988). I also organized a workshop on the subject preceding the conference. The WDC for Glaciology also prepared a permafrost bibliography, with support from the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL). In 1989, the International Permafrost Association (IPA) Working Group on Permafrost Data was established, chaired by Michael Clark from the Geodata Institute at the University of Southampton (who I had taught as an undergraduate). I served as secretary from 1989 to 1993 and Clark and I reversed our roles from 1993 to 1997. A series of IPA-supported workshops in Oslo, Southampton, and Potsdam led to the development of the Global Geocryological Database (GGD), with nodes in Russia, the United States, and elsewhere. With the encouragement and support of Jerry Brown (of the IPA Executive), we produced a CD of permafrost data, metadata, and map information, including significant Russian data. The Circumpolar Active Layer Permafrost System (CAPS) CD was prepared for the 1997 International Conference on Permafrost in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, and distributed to all participants. We released CAPS-2 for the 2003 conference in Zurich, Switzerland. In 1998, a Standing Committee of Permafrost Data, Information and Communication (SCDIC) was formed, for which I serve as co-chair (initially with Mike Clark and currently with Sharon Smith).

In 1994, I participated in the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Arctic Climate System (ACSYS) Science Conference in Göteberg, Sweden, and became a member of the ACSYS Scientific Steering Group (then chaired by Knut Aagard and later by Howard Cattle). The WCRP Joint Scientific Committee (JSC) was concerned about a lack of a focus in the role of the cryosphere in climate. In February 1997 in Cambridge, England, a group of experts met to review this topic and to recommend possible strategies to address it. They considered focusing on both bipolar and cold regions, but decided to aim for a climate and cryosphere project (Barry 1998). The JSC set up a task force under the ACSYS Scientific Steering Group (SSG) to develop a project plan, which the task force accomplished during two meetings, held in Utrecht and Grenoble (co-chaired by Ian Allison and myself), and through the advice and input of the SSG. In March 2000, the WCRP JSC established the Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) project, which ran concurrently with ACSYS, until that project ended in 2003. CliC continues independently through 2015. Ian Allison and I became co-vice chairs of the SSG in 2000, under chairman Howard Cattle. Barry Goodison has served as chair since 2002. Most recently I was asked to serve as the CliC representative to a WCRP task force addressing the WCRP strategy for Coordinated Observation and Prediction of the Earth System (COPES). This is a new overarching WCRP activity from 2005 until 2015.

I also contributed to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments in 1990, 1995, and 2001, and will be a review editor for Working Groups 1 and 2 for 2006. Providing a similar review input for the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) was a valuable role for me.

Epilogue

A career is a mixture of serendipity and being in the right place at the right time, but also requires patiently working in your areas of interest or pursuing unplanned developments at a particular point in time, without expectation that they will necessarily lead anywhere. Years later, some of these pursuits may unexpectedly bear fruit. Undoubtedly, my principal professional satisfactions include working with so many brilliant graduate students; communicating the basics of several areas of climatology to a wide audience via textbooks and lectures, and occasionally having the pleasure of someone saying, “I used your book”; and making cryospheric data management a reality and establishing NSIDC as a worldwide resource.

So, where should we go from here?
Climatology became a “respectable” and respected discipline over the last two to three decades. The scope of climatology has broadened immensely, indicated by the growing number and range of dedicated journals, from essentially none in 1960 to around 10 currently. Scientists like Hubert Lamb, Murray Mitchell, and Reid Bryson played key roles in this, as did program leaders such as Alan Hecht and Gene Bierly at NSF, Joe Fletcher at NOAA-ERL, and Robert Schiffer at NASA. The availability of gridded meteorological fields and remotely sensed data products has made climate research much easier. Also, advances in numerical modeling and computing power allowed scientists to apply General Circulation Models (GCMs) to problems of global climate past, present, and future. Leaders like Warren Washington, Jr. at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Larry Gates at Oregon State University (OSU), Syuke Manabe at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), and Jim Hansen at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) also recognized the importance of interacting with the observational and paleoclimate communities.

Climate change is now receiving attention at the highest levels of government, with the Climate Change Science Program in the United States and the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in the United Nations. A major driver was the First World Climate Conference in 1979 (in which Jill Jaeger played an important role) and the subsequent establishment of the World Climate Programme by WMO and ICSU in 1980. The most successful and active part of that has been the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), with the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR), ACSYS, and now CliC. Mark Serreze, Richard Armstrong, and myself (from NSIDC) and Konrad Steffen (from CIRES) are currently involved in CliC. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) five-year assessments have also been immensely important.

Climate science is heading in new directions that include regional socio-economic assessments, where Henry Diaz and Roger Pulwarty have been active, and studies of Inuit Traditional Environmental Knowledge of climate change impacts in Nunavut, conducted by Shari Fox Gearheard. Scientists are also conducting comprehensive modeling and analysis of the integrated earth system (for instance, researchers in Japan are operating a 35 Mflop “Earth Simulator”). As geographers, we know that most things on Earth are interrelated, and these interconnections merit our attention.

My messages to current “third-generation” students would be to

  • persevere with what you consider to be important,
  • continually retool your techniques
  • know who is doing what, not only in the English-speaking world, but internationally
  • network with others of the clan!

References

Andrews, J. T., and R. G. Barry. 1978. Glacial inception and disintegration during the Last Glacial Maximum. Annual Reviews of Earth Science 6: 205-228.

Andrews, J. T., R. G. Barry, and L. Drapier. 1970. An inventory of the present and past glacierization of Home Bay and Okoa Bay, east Baffin Island, N.W.T., and some climatic palaeoclimatic considerations. Journal of Glaciology 9(57): 337-362.

Barry, R. G. 1959. A synoptic climatology for Labrador-Ungava. Publication in Meteorology No. 17. Montreal: Arctic Meteorology Research Group, McGill University.

Barry, R. G. 1960a. The application of synoptic studies in palaeoclimatology; a case-study for Labrador-Ungava. Geografiska Annaler 42: 36-44.

Barry, R. G. 1960b. A note on the synoptic climatology of Labrador-Ungava. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 86: 557-567.

Barry, R. G. 1963. Aspects of the synoptic climatology of central south England. Meteorological Magazine 92: 300-308.

Barry, R. G. 1964a. Weather conditions at Tanquary Fiord, summer 1963. Operation Hazen Report No. 23. Ottawa: Defense Research Board of Canada.

Barry, R. G. 1964b. Weather and climate. In A survey of Southampton and its region, ed. F.J. Monkhouse, 73-92. Southampton: British Association for the Advancement of Science and Southampton University Press.

Barry, R. G. 1966. Meteorological aspects of the glacial history of Labrador-Ungava with special reference to vapor transport. Geography Bulletin (Ottawa) 8(4): 319-340.

Barry, R. G. 1967a. Models in meteorology and climatology. In Models in Geography, eds. P. Haggett and R.J. Chorley, 97-144. London: Methuen.

Barry, R. G. 1967b. Variations in the content and transport of water vapor over northeastern North America during two winter seasons. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 93: 535-543.

Barry, R. G. 1967c. Seasonal location of the Arctic Front over North America. Geography Bulletin 9: 79-95.

Barry, R. G. 1968. Meteorological field program. In North-Central Baffin Island Field Report, 1967. Report Series No. 2, 103-113. Ottawa: Inland Waters Branch, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources.

Barry, R. G. 1973a. The conditions favoring glacierization and deglacierization in North America from a climatological viewpoint. Arctic and Alpine Research 5(3): 171-184.

Barry, R. G. 1973b. A climatological transect on the east slope of the Front Range, Colorado. Arctic and Alpine Research 5(2): 89-110.

Barry, R. G. 1978a. Cryospheric responses to a global temperature increase. In Carbon Dioxide Climate and Society, ed. J. Williams, 169-180. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Barry, R. G. 1978b. Aspects of the precipitation characteristics of the New Guinea mountains. Journal of Tropical Geography 47: 13-30.

Barry, R. G. 1980. Mountain climates of New Guinea. In Alpine Flora of New Guinea, ed. P. van Royen, 75-109. Braunschweig: Cramer.

Barry, R. G. 1981. Mountain Weather and Climate. London: Methuen.

Barry, R. G. 1985. The cryosphere and climate change. In Detection of CO2-Induced Climatic Change, eds. M.C. MacCracken and F.M. Luther, 109-148. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Energy. DOE/ER-0235.

Barry, R. G. 1988. Permafrost data and information: status and needs. In Permafrost: fifth international conference proceedings, vol. 1, ed. K. Senneset, 119-122. Trondheim, Norway: Tapir Publishers.

Barry, R. G. 1990. Changes in mountain climate and glacio-hydrological responses. Mountain Research and Development 10(2): 161-170.

Barry, R. G. 1991. Observational evidence of changes in global snow and ice cover. In Greenhouse gas-induced climatic change: a critical appraisal of simulations and observations, ed. M.E. Schlesinger, 329-345. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Barry, R. G. 1992a. The significance of global snow and ice cover for global change studies. GeoJournal 27: 293-297.

Barry, R. G. 1992b. Mountain climatology and past and potential future climatic changes in mountain regions: A review. Mountain Research and Development 12: 71-86.

Barry, R. G. 1996. The parameterization of surface albedo for sea ice and its snow cover. Progress in Physical Geography 20(1): 61-77.

Barry, R. G. 1998. Organization of internationally-coordinated research into cryosphere and climate. In Proceedings of a Meeting of Experts on Cryosphere and Climate, ed. R. G. Barry. WCRP-102, WMO/TD No.867. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization.

Barry, R. G. 2002. The role of snow and ice in the global climate system: A Review. Polar Geography 24(3): 235-246.

Barry, R. G. 2003. Mountain cryospheric studies and the WCRP Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) Project. Special issue, Journal of Hydrology 282(1-4): 177-181.

Barry, R. G., J. T. Andrews, R. S. Bradley, G. H. Miller, and L. D. Williams. 1972. Past and present glaciological responses to climate in eastern Baffin Island. Quaternary Research 3: 303-316.

Barry, R. G., J. T. Andrews, and M.A. Mahaffy. 1975. Continental ice sheets: conditions for growth. Science 190: 179-181.

Barry, R. G., and A. M. Carleton. 2001. Synoptic and Dynamic Climatology. London: Routledge.

Barry, R. G., and R. E. Chambers. 1966a. A preliminary map of summer albedo over England and Wales. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 92: 543-548.

Barry, R. G., and R. E. Chambers. 1966b. Variations of albedo in southern Hampshire and Dorset. Weather 21: 60-65.

Barry, R. G., and R. J. Chorley. 1968. Atmosphere, Weather and Climate. London: Methuen.

Barry, R. G., G. M. Courtin, and C. Labine. 1981. Tundra climates. In Tundra Ecosystems: A Comparative Analysis, eds. L.C. Bliss, A.W. Heal and J. Moore, 81-114. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Barry R. G., and R. G. Crane. 1979. Inventory of data on snow cover and sea ice extent. In Inventory of Snow Cover and Sea Ice Data, comp. R.G. Crane, 1-3. Glaciological Data, Report GD-7. Boulder, CO: World Data Center-A for Glaciology.

Barry, R. G., and S. Fogarasi. 1968. Climatology studies of Baffin Island, Northwest Territories. Inland Waters Branch, Technical Bulletin No. 13. Ottawa: Inland Waters Branch, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources.

Barry, R. G., H. P. Hanson, and U. Radok. 2002. Atmospheric and oceanic research in CIRES: Atmospheric physics, cryospheric and polar processes and climate dynamics. In CIRES, 1967-2002: Pioneering a Successful Partnership, ed. K. Kisslinger, 87-108. Boulder, CO: CIRES.

Barry, R. G., A. D. Hecht, J. E. Kutzbach, W. D. Sellers, T. Webb, III, and P. B. Wright. 1979. Climatic change. Reviews of Geophysics 17: 1803-1813.

Barry, R. G., and J. D. Jacobs. 1973. Glaciological and meteorological studies on the Boas Glacier, Baffin Island, for two contrasting seasons. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication (Role of snow and ice in hydrology) 107(1): 371-382.

Barry R. G., and P. K. MacKinnon. 1980. The status and future of ice core data. In Ice Cores, comp. P.K. Mackinnon, 1-4. Glaciological Data Report GD-8. Boulder, CO: World Data Center-A for Glaciology.

Barry, R. G., R. E. Moritz, and J. C. Rogers. 1979. The fast ice regimes of the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea coasts, Alaska. Cold Regions Science and Technology 1: 129-152.

Barry, R. G., and A. H. Perry. 1969. Weather-type frequencies and the recent temperature fluctuation. Nature 222(5192): 463-464; 226(5246): 634.

Barry, R. G., and R. G. Perry. 1973a. Synoptic climatology: methods and applications. London: Methuen.

Barry, R. G., and A. H. Perry. 1973b. Recent temperature changes due to changes in the frequency and average temperature of weather types over the British Isles. Meteorolog. Mag. 102: 73-82.

Barry, R. G., G. R. Scharfen, K. W. Knowles, and S. J. Goodman. 1994. Global distribution of lightning mapped for night-time visible band DMSP satellite data. R?vue Generale d? ?lectricit? 6: 13-16.

Barry, R. G., and A. Seimon. 2000. Research for mountain area development: Climate fluctuations in the mountains of the Americas and their significance. Ambio 29(7): 364-370. Corrigendum Ambio 30(1): 69.

Barry, R. G., L. D. Williams, and J. T. Andrews. 1972. Application of computed global radiation for areas of high relief. Journal of Applied Meteorology 11: 526-533.

Bedford, D. P., and R. G. Barry. 1994. Glacier trends in the Caucasus, 1960s to 1980s. Physical Geography 15: 414-424.

Bradley, R. S., and R. G. Barry. 1973. Secular climatic fluctuations in southwestern Colorado. Monthly Weather Review 101: 264-270.

Bradley, R. S., and R. G. Barry. 1975. Secular fluctuations of precipitation in the Rocky Mountain region. In Proceedings of the WMO/IAMAP symposium on long-term climatic fluctuation. WMO Publication No. 421, 215-222. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization.

Brinkmann, W. A. R., and R. G. Barry. 1972. Palaeoclimatological aspects of the synoptic climatology of Keewatin, Northwest Territories, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 11: 87-91.

Crane, R. G., and R. G. Barry. 1984. The influence of clouds on climate with a focus on high latitude interactions. Journal of Climatology 4: 71-93.

Diaz, H. F., R. G. Barry, and G. Kiladis. 1982. Climatic characteristics of Pike's Peak, Colorado (1874 to 1888) and comparisons with other Colorado stations. Mountain Research and Development 2: 359-357.

Dingman, S. L., R. G. Barry, G. Weller, C. Benson, E. LeDrew, and C. Goodwin. 1980. An Arctic Ecosystem: the coastal Tundra at Barrow, Alaska. In Climate, Snow Cover, Microclimate and Hydrology of the Arctic Coastal Plain, eds. J. Brown, P. C. Miller, L. L. Tieszen, and F. L. Bunnell, 30-65. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross.

Hecht, A. D., R. G. Barry, H. Fritts, J. Imbrie, J. E. Kutzbach, J. M. Mitchell, and S. M. Savin. 1979. Paleoclimatic research: status and opportunities. Quaternary Research 12: 6-17.

Ives, J. D., J. T. Andrews, and R. G. Barry. 1975. Growth and decay of the Laurentide ice sheet and comparisons with Fenno-Scandinavia. Naturwissenschaften 62: 118-125.

Ives, J. D., and R. G. Barry. (eds). 1974. Arctic and Alpine Environments. London: Methuen.

Jacobs, J. D., R. G. Barry, and R. L. Weaver. 1975. Fast ice characteristics with special reference to the eastern Canadian Arctic. Polar Record 17: 521-536.

Key, J. R., and R. G. Barry. 1989. Cloud cover analysis with Arctic AVHRR data: cloud detection. Journal of Geophysical Research 94(D15): 18521-18535.

Khromova, T. E., M. B. Dyurgerov, and R. G. Barry. 2003. Late twentieth century changes in glacier extent in the Ak-Shirak Range, Central Asia, Determined from Historical Data and ASTER Imagery. Geophysical Research Letters 30(16): 1863, doi: 10.1029/2003GL017233.

Kukla, G., R. K. Matthews, and J. M. Mitchell. 1972. The end of the present Interglacial. Quaternary Research 2: 261-69.

Lamb, P. J. 2002. The climate revolution: A perspective. Climatic Change 54(1-2): 1-9.

LeDrew, E. F. 1975. The Estimation of Clear Sky Atmospheric Emittance at High Altitudes. Arctic and Alpine Research 7(3): 227-236.

LeDrew, E. F. 1975. The Energy Balance of a Mid-Latitude Alpine Site During the Growing Season 1973. Arctic and Alpine Research 7(4): 301-314.

LeDrew, E. F., and G. Weller. 1978. A Comparison of the Radiation and Energy Balance During the Growing Season of an Arctic and Alpine Tundra. Arctic and Alpine Research 10(4): 665-678.

LeDrew, E. F. 1980. Eigenvector Analysis of the Vertical Velocity Field Over the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Monthly Weather Review 108(12): 1992-2005.

LeDrew, E. F. 1983. The Dynamic Climatology of the Beaufort Sea - Laptev Sea Sector of the Polar Basin for the Summers of 1975 and 1976. Journal of Climatology 3: 335-359.

Morris, R. E., and R. G. Barry. 1963. Soil and air temperatures in a New Forest valley. Weather 19: 325-331.

Moses, T., G. N. Kiladis, H. F. Diaz, and R. G. Barry. 1987. Characteristics and frequency of reversals in mean sea level pressure in the North Atlantic sector and their relationship to long-term temperature trends. Journal of Climatology 7: 13-30.

Pulwarty, R. S., R. G. Barry, and H. Riehl. 1992. Annual and seasonal patterns of rainfall variability over Venezuela. Erdkunde 51: 273-289.

Pulwarty, R. S., R. G. Barry, C. M. Hurst, K. Selinger, and L. F. Mogollon. 1998. Precipitation in the Venezuelan Andes in the context of regional climate. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 67: 217-238.

Radok, U., R. G. Barry, D. Jenssen, R. A. Keen, G. N. Kiladis, and B. McInnes. 1982. Climatic and physical characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet, Parts 1 and 2. Boulder, CO: CIRES.

Sokratov, S. A., and R. G. Barry. 2002. Intraseasonal variations in the thermoinsulation effect of snow cover on soil temperatures and energy balance. Journal of Geophysical Research 107(D9-10): 1-7.

Solomina, O., R. Barry, and M. Bodnya. 2004. The retreat of Tien Shan glaciers (Kyrgyzstan) since the Little Ice Age estimated from aerial photographs, lichenometric and historical data. Geografiska Annaler 86A (2): 205-15.

Weaver, R. L., J. D. Jacobs, and R. G. Barry. 1976. Fast ice studies in western Davis Strait. In Third International Conference on Ports and Ocean Engineering Under Arctic Conditions, Vol. 1, 455-466. Fairbanks: University of Alaska.

Williams, J., and R. G. Barry. 1975. Ice age experiments with the NCAR general circulation model. In Climate of the Arctic, eds. G. Weller and S.A. Bowling, 163-169. Fairbanks: University of Alaska.

Williams, J., R. G. Barry, and W. M. Washington. 1974. Simulation of the atmospheric circulation using the NCAR Global Circulation Model with Ice Age boundary conditions. Journal of Applied Meteorology 13: 305-317.

WDC for Glaciology. 1979. Workshop on snow cover and sea ice data. Glaciological Data Report GD-5. Boulder, CO: World Data Center for Glaciology.

Appendix

Student statistics

  • Since 1971, Roger Barry has supervised a total of 41 students, 10 of whom were women. 25 students received their PhD degrees, 35 received their Master?s Degrees and 19 received both degrees at the University of Colorado.
  • Seven students were from the United Kingdom, five from Canada and four from other Commonwealth countries.
  • Two of the students had worked earlier with Ken Hare at University of Toronto, and some were second-generation students who studied under Ruth Chambers, Ray Bradley, and John Jacobs.
Student career outcomes (based on 44 graduates to 2001)  
Associate/full professors, chairs, deans23%
Senior Researcher in government laboratory11%
Senior Researcher in academic institutes11%
Other teaching or research36%
Applied geography/GIS/remote-sensing7%
Scientific/data management7%
Unrelated to degree/unknown7%

Academic networks
Roger G. Barry received training at the following institutions.

Institution Supervisor Dates
University of LiverpoolS. Gregory1954-1957,
1959-1960
McGill UniversityF.K. Hare, S. Orvig, B.W. Boville, J.D. Ives1957-1959
Geography Branch/DEMRJ.D. Ives, J. Andrews1966-1967

Barry taught and conducted research at the following institutions at the University of Southampton (from 1960 to 1967), and at the University of Colorado Department of Geography and INSTAAR/CIRES (from 1968 to the present).

Barry's short term teaching and research appointments include the following.

  • Department of Energy, Mines and Resources in Ottawa, Canada (1966 to 1967)
  • Australian National University in Canberra, Australia( 1975)
  • University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand (1976)
  • Scott Polar Research Institute in Cambridge, UK (1982)
  • University of Berne in Berne, Switzerland (1983)
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland (1990 and 1997)
  • Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven, Germany (1994)
  • Moscow State University in Moscow, Russia (2001)
  • Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l'Environnement in Grenoble, France (2004)

 

History of Climate Science: 1950-2000 Context

 

Technology

 

Trends in Computational Capacity

 

Archived Environmental Sciences Data Growth