Is the Arctic Ocean a carbon sink?

We’ve all heard it: Arctic sea ice is melting. Sea ice is thinner year to year and there is less of it. In 2007, scientists observed a nearly 50 percent loss of summer ice as compared to 1980. With such a dramatic shift, what else is taking place in the Arctic Ocean? Scientists are discovering some of the negative affects, but are there any positive influences as well? Continue reading

What about that hole in the sea ice?

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There’s been discussion about a big opening in sea ice, called a polynya, and if it had anything to do with the Russian expedition ship, Akademik Shokalskiy, getting stuck near the Antarctic coast. The answer is not so straightforward. “In the winter, polynyas can close up really quickly,” said Kevin Arrigo, a professor at Stanford University. When they close, whatever is inside may be trapped. Continue reading

Can liquid water persist within an ice sheet?

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Scientists have discovered a large aquifer, the size of Ireland, near the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet. “This was a big surprise,” said Jason Box, a researcher for the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, “because we were drilling before melt had begun.” So liquid water had to survive since at least the previous year. Such water storage within the ice had not been previously considered, not on this massive scale. How can a giant reservoir of water exist inside a frozen ice sheet? Continue reading

The Karakoram Anomaly: Is it real?

In recent years with sharp summer sea ice decline, the Arctic seems more sensitive to climate warming than elsewhere on Earth. But are other frozen features of Earth changing too? Notably, most of the world’s glaciers are also getting smaller—except for a few stubborn ones, such as in the Karakoram area of the Himalaya. Why are these glaciers not retreating? Continue reading

What can stall a glacier?

Much talk surrounds the deterioration of glaciers and ice sheets—particularly, how they are thinning and losing mass with global warming; but the mechanisms are complicated and scientists want to know more about their flow. The Antarctic ice sheet, in particular, piques interest because it contains enough fresh water to raise sea levels 60 meters (200 feet), if it were to melt completely. So how does the ground beneath the ice influence mobility? When and how does the ice sheet stall? When does it accelerate? And how does this ebb and flow contribute to global sea level rise? Continue reading