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Frozen Ground Data Center
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Glossary: References

With apologies to our Canadian and European readers, we note that it was necessary to remove special characters from these references in order that spelling would not be distorted for those without the correct multinational fonts installed on their computers. In the case of French, accents were removed; in German and Scandinavian languages, "aa", "ae" or "oe" was substituted for the special vowel symbols. The proper special characters are captured in the PDF version.

--NSIDC Compilation and Editorial Team

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M  
N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X-Y Z

A

Aahman, R., 1977. "Palsar i Nordnorge." Meddelanden fraan Lund Universitets Geografiska Institution, Avhandlingar No.78, 165 p.

Andersland, O.B. and Anderson, D.M. (Editors), 1978. Geotechnical Engineering for Cold Regions. McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y., 576 p.

Anderson, D.M., Gatto, L.W. and Ugolini, F., 1973. "An examination of Mariner 6 and 7 imagery for evidence of permafrost terrain on Mars." Proceedings Second International Conference on Permafrost, Yakutsk, U.S.S.R., July 1973, North American Contribution, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp.499-508.

Anderson, D.M. and Morgenstern, N.R., 1973. "Physics, chemistry and mechanics of frozen ground: A review." Proceedings Second International Conference on Permafrost, Yakutsk, U.S.S.R., July 1973, North American Contribution, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp.257-288.

Andersson, J.G., 1906. "Solifluction, a component of subaerial denudation." Journal of Geology, Vol. 14, pp.91-112.

Are, F.E., 1978. " The reworking of shorelines in the permafrost zone." Proceedings Second International Conference on Permafrost, Yakutsk, U.S.S.R., July 1973, U.S.S.R. Contribution, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp.59-62.

B

Baranov, I.Ya., 1978. "Problems of cryology." Proceedings Second International Conference on Permafrost, Yakutsk, U.S.S.R., July 1973, U.S.S.R. Contribution, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp.3-7.

Benedict, J.B., 1970. "Downslope soil movement in a Colorado alpine region: rates, processes and climatic significance." Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp.165-226.

Berg, T.E. and Black, R.F., 1966. "Preliminary measurements of growth of nonsorted polygons, Victoria Land, Antarctica." In: Antarctic Soils and Soil-Forming Processes (J.F.S. Tedrow, Editor), American Geophysical Union Antarctic Research Series, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., Publication 1418, pp.61-108.

Bily, C. and Dick, J.W.L., 1974. "Naturally occurring gas hydrates in the Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T." Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, Vol. 22, pp.340-352.

Black, R.F., 1969. "Climatically significant fossil periglacial phenomena in northcentral United States." Biuletyn Periglacjalny, No. 20, pp.225-238.

Black, R.F., 1976. "Features indicative of permafrost." Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences (F.A. Donath, Editor). Annual Reviews, Inc., Palo Alto, California, Vol. 4, pp.75-94.

Black, R.F. and Barksdale, W.L., 1949. "Oriented lakes of northern Alaska." Journal of Geology, Vol. 57, pp.105-118.

Black, R.F. and Berg, T.E., 1966. "Patterned ground in Antarctica." Proceedings Permafrost International Conference, Lafayette, Indiana, November 1963, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., Publication No. 1287, pp.121-128.

Blanchard, D. and Fremond, M., 1982. "Cryogenic suction in soils." Proceedings Third International Symposium on Ground Freezing, Hanover, New Hampshire, June 1982, (Vol. 1), pp.233-238.

Boyd, D.W., 1973. Normal freezing and thawing degree-days for Canada: 1931-1960. Environment Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Publication CLI 4-73, 38 p.

Boyd, D.W., 1979. Degree days: The different types. National Research Council Canada, Division of Building Research, Ottawa, Building Research Note No. 138, 8 p.

Brewer, M.C., 1958. "Some results of geothermal investigations of permafrost in northern Alaska." Transactions, American Geophysical Union, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp.19-26.

Brewer, R. and Pawluk, S., 1975. "Investigations of some soils developed in hummocks of the Canadian sub-Arctic and southern Arctic regions." 1. Morphology and Micromorphology. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 55, No. 3, pp.301-319.

Brown, J., 1969. "Soils of the Okpilak River Region, Alaska." In: The Periglacial Environment (T.L. Pewe, Editor), McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, pp.93-128.

Brown, J., Ferrians, O.J. Jr., Heginbottom, J.A., and Melnikov, E.S., 1997. "Circum-arctic map of permafrost and ground-ice conditions." U.S. Geological Survey, Map CP-45, scale 1:10,000,000.

Brown, R.J.E., 1966. "Permafrost, climafrost, and the muskeg H factor." Proceedings Eleventh Muskeg Research Conference, National Research Council Canada, Associate Committee on Soil and Snow Mechanics, Ottawa, Technical Memorandum No. 87, pp.159-178.

Brown, R.J.E., 1967a. "Comparison of permafrost conditions in Canada and the U.S.S.R." Polar Record, Vol. 13, No. 87, pp.741-751.

Brown, R.J.E., 1967b. Permafrost Map of Canada. National Research Council Canada, Pub. NRC 9769 and Geological Survey of Canada, Map 1246A (with marginal notes).

Brown, R.J.E., 1970a. "Occurrence of permafrost in Canadian peatlands." Proceedings Third International Peat Congress, Quebec, 1968, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, pp.174-181.

Brown, R.J.E., 1970b. Permafrost in Canada: Its influence on northern development. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 234 p.

Brown, R.J.E., 1971. Characteristics of the active layer in the permafrost region of Canada. Proceedings Seminar on Permafrost Active Layer, May 1971, National Research Council Canada, Associate Committee on Geotechnical Research, Ottawa, Technical Memorandum 103, pp.1-7.

Brown, R.J.E., 1978. Permafrost Map of Canada. In: Hydrological Atlas of Canada, Department of Fisheries and Environment, Ottawa, Canada, Plate No. 32.

Brown, R.J.E. and Kupsch, W.O., 1974. Permafrost Terminology. National Research Council Canada, Associate Committee on Geotechnical Research, Ottawa, Technical Memorandum No. 111, 62 p.

Bryan, K., 1946. "Cryopedology - the study of frozen ground and intensive frost action with suggestions on nomenclature." American Journal of Science, Vol. 244, pp.622-642.

Burn, C., 1994. "Permafrost, tectonics, and past and future regional climate change, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories."

C

Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol.31, pp.182-191.

Canada Soil Survey Committee, 1978. The Canadian System of Soil Classification. Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Publication 1646, 164 p.

Capps, S.R., Jr., 1910. "Rock glaciers in Alaska." Journal of Geology, Vol. 18, pp.359-375.

Carey, K.L., 1970. Icing occurrence, control and prevention: An annotated bibliography. U.S. Army, CRREL, Hanover, New Hampshire, Special Report 151, 57 p.

Carey, K.L., 1973. Icings developed from surface water and ground water. U.S. Army, CRREL, Hanover, New Hampshire, Monograph MIII-D3, 67 p.

Carlson, H. and Kersten, M.S., 1953. "Calculation of depths of freezing and thawing under pavements." U.S. National Research Council, Highway Research Board, Bulletin No. 71, pp.81-98 (includes Discussion by H.P.Aldrich and H.M. Paynter).

Carson, C.E. and Hussey, K.M., 1962. "The oriented lakes of Arctic Alaska." Journal of Geology, Vol. 70, pp.417-439.

Chamberlain, E.J., 1981. Frost susceptibility of soil: Review of index tests. U.S. Army, CRREL, Hanover, New Hampshire, Monograph 81-2, 121 p.

Cheng, Guodong, 1983. "The mechanism of repeated-segregation for the formation of thick layered ground ice." Cold Regions Science and Technology, Vol. 8, pp.57-66.

Corte, A.E., 1962. "Vertical migration of particles in front of a moving freezing plane." Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 67, pp.1085-1090.

Czudek, T. and Demek, J., 1970. "Thermokarst in Siberia and its influence on the development of lowland relief." Quaternary Research, Vol. I, pp.103-120.

D

Delorme, L.D., Zoltai, S.C. and Kalas, L.L., 1978. "Freshwater shelled invertebrate indicators of paleoclimate in northwestern Canada during late glacial times: Reply". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp.462-463.

Demek, J., 1969. "Cryoplanation terraces, their geographical distribution, genesis and development." Ceskoslovenske Akademie Ved Rozprovy, Rada Matematickych a Prirodnich Ved, Vol. 79, No. 4, 80 p.

Dostovalov, B.N. and Popov, A.I., 1966. "Polygonal systems of ice wedges and conditions of their development." Proceedings Permafrost International Conference, Lafayette, Indiana, November 1963, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., Publication 1287, pp.102-105.

Dyke, L.D., 1981. "Bedrock heave in the central Arctic." Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Paper 81-1A, pp.157-167.

Dyke, L.D., 1984. "Frost heaving of bedrock in permafrost regions." Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp.389-405.

Dylik, J., 1964. " Elements essentiels de la notion de 'periglaciaire'." Biuletyn Peryglacjalny, No. 14, pp.111-132.

E

Eakin, H.M., 1916. "The Yukon-Koyukuk region, Alaska." U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 631, pp.67-88.

F

Fanale, F.P. and Clark, R.N., 1983. "Solar system ices and Mars permafrost." Proceedings Fourth International Conference on Permafrost, Fairbanks, Alaska, July 1983, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp.289-294.

Ferrians, O.J., Jr., Kachadoorian, R. and Greene, G.W., 1969. Permafrost and related engineering problems in Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 678, 37 p.

Flemal, R.C., 1976. "Pingos and pingo scars: Their characteristics, distribution, and utility in reconstructing former permafrost environments." Quaternary Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp.37-53.

Fosgren, B., 1966. "Tritium determinations in the study of palsa formation." Geografiska Annaler, Vol. 48A, pp.102-110.

Fosgren, B., 1968. "Studies of palsas in Finland, Norway and Sweden." Biuletyn Peryglacjalny, No. 17, pp.117-123.

Fotiev, S.M., 1978. "Effect of long-term cryometamorphism of earth materials on the formation of groundwater." Proceedings Third International Conference on Permafrost, Edmonton, Alberta, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Vol. 1, pp.181-187 (In Russian). Translation in: English translations of the forty-nine Soviet papers, the one French paper, and the three invited Soviet theme papers, Part I: English translations of twenty-six of the Soviet papers, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Publication No. NRCC 18119, 1980, pp.177-194.

Fox, C.A., 1983. "Micromorphology of an orthic turbic cryosol--a permafrost soil." In: Soil Micromorphology (P.Bullock and G.P.Murphy, Editors), A.B. Academic Publishers, Oxford, pp.699-705.

French, H.M., 1975. "Man-induced thermokarst development, Sachs Harbour airstrip, Banks Island, N.W.T." Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp.132-144.

French, H.M., 1976. The Periglacial Environment. Longman Group Limited, London and New York, 309 p.

French, H.M., Harry, D.G. and Clark, M.J., 1982. "Ground ice stratigraphy late-Quaternary events, southwest Banks Island, Canadian Arctic." The Roger J.E. Brown Memorial Volume, Proceedings Fourth Canadian Permafrost Conference, Calgary, Alberta, March 1981, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, pp.81-90.

Fries, T. and Bergstroem, E., 1910. "Naagra iakttagelser oefver palsar och deras foerekomst i nordligaste Sverige." Geologiska Foereningen Foerhandlingar, Vol.32, pp.195-205.

Fujii, Y. and Higuchi, K., 1978. "Distribution of alpine permafrost in the northern hemisphere and its relation to air temperature." Proceedings Third International Conference on Permafrost, Edmonton, Alberta, July 1978, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Vol. 1, pp.366-371.

Fyodorov, J.S. (compiler) and Ivanov, N.S. (Editor), 1974. English-Russian geocryological dictionary. Yakutsk State University, Yakutsk, U.S.S.R., 127 p.

G

Garg, O.P., 1973. "In situ physicomechanical properties of permafrost using geophysical techniques." Proceedings Second International Conference on Permafrost, Yakutsk, U.S.S.R., July 1973, North American Contribution, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp.508-517.

Gell, W.A., 1978. "Thermal contraction cracks in massive segregated ice, Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula, N.W.T., Canada." Proceedings Third International Conference on Permafrost, Edmonton, Alberta, July 1978, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Vol. 1, pp.278-281.

Gilpin, R.R., 1982. "A frost heave interface condition for use in numerical modelling." The Roger J.E. Brown Memorial Volume, Proceedings Fourth Canadian Permafrost Conference, Calgary, Alberta, March 1981, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, pp.459-465.

Glen, J.W., 1974. The physics of ice. U.S. Army, CRREL, Hanover, New Hampshire, Monograph II-C2a, 86 p.

Gold, L.W., 1967. Influence of surface conditions on ground temperature. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp.199-208.

Gold, L.W. and Lachenbruch, A.H., 1973. "Thermal conditions in permafrost: A review of North American literature." Proceedings Second International Conference on Permafrost, Yakutsk, U.S.S.R., July 1973, North American Contribution, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp.3-25.

Goodrich, L.E., 1982. "The influence of snow cover on the ground thermal regime." Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp.421-432.

Gozdzik, J., 1973. "Origin and stratigraphic position of periglacial structures in Middle Poland." Acta Geographica, Vol. 31, pp.104-117.

H

Haeberli, W., 1973. "Die Basis-Temperatur der winterlichen Schneedecke als moeglicher Indikator fuer die Verbreitung von Permafrost in den Alpen." Zeitschrift fuer Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie, Vol. 9, pp.221-227.

Harris, S.A., 1979. "Ice caves and permafrost zones in southwest Alberta." Erdkunde, Vol. 33, pp.61-70.

Harris, S.A., 1981. "Climatic relationships of permafrost zones in areas of low winter snow-cover." Arctic, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp.64-70.

Harris, S.A., 1986. "Permafrost distribution, zonation and stability along the eastern ranges of the Cordillera of North America." Arctic, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp.29-38.

Harris, S.A., 1993. "Palsa-like mounds developed in a mineral substrate, Fox Lake, Yukon Territory." Proceedings, Sixth International Conference on Permafrost, Beijing, 1993, South China University of Technology Press, Vol.1, pp.238-243.

Harris, S.A. and Brown, R.J.E., 1978. "Plateau Mountain: A case study of alpine permafrost in the Canadian Rocky Mountains." Proceedings Third International Conference on Permafrost, Edmonton, Alberta, July 1978, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Vol. 1, pp.385-391.

Harris, S.A. and Brown, R.J.E., 1982. "Permafrost distribution along the Rocky Mountains in Alberta." The Roger J.E. Brown Memorial Volume, Proceedings Fourth Canadian Permafrost Conference, Calgary, Alberta, March 1981, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, pp.59-67.

Harry, D.G. and French, H.M., 1983. "The orientation and evolution of thaw lakes, southwest Banks Island, Canadian Arctic." Proceedings Fourth International Conference on Permafrost, Fairbanks, Alaska, July 1983, U.S. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp.456-461.

Harry, D.G., French, H.M. and Clark, M.J., 1983. "Coastal conditions and processes, Sachs Harbour, southwest Banks Island, Western Canadian Arctic." Zeitschrift fuer Geomorphologie, Supplement Band 47, pp.1-26.

Hayley, D.W., 1982. "Application of heat pipes to design of shallow foundations on permafrost." The Roger J.E. Brown Memorial Volume, Proceedings Fourth Canadian Permafrost Conference, Calgary, Alberta, March 1981, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, pp.535-544.

Hayley, D.W., Roggensack, W.D., Jubien, W.E. and Johnson, P.V., 1983. "Stabilization of sinkholes on the Hudson Bay Railway." Proceedings Fourth International Conference on Permafrost, Fairbanks, Alaska, July 1983, U.S. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp.468-473.

Heginbottom, J.A., 1984. "The mapping of permafrost." Canadian Geographer, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp.78-83.

Heginbottom, J.A. and Radburn, L.K. (compilers), 1992. "Permafrost and ground ice conditions of Northwestern Canada / Conditions relatives au pergelisol et a la glace de sol du nord-ouest du Canada." Geological Survey of Canada / Commission Geologique du Canada. Map / carte 1691-A, scale / echelle de 1:1,000,000, 2 sheets / feuilles (Bilingual / bilangue).

Heginbottom, J.A., Dubreuil, M-A., and Harker, P.T., 1995. "Canada -- Permafrost." National Atlas of Canada, 5th edition, Natural Resources Canada, Plate 2.1, scale 1:7,500,000.

Hennion, F., 1955. "Frost and permafrost definitions." U.S. National Research Council, Highway Research Board, Washington, D.C., HRB Bulletin 111, pp.107-110.

Heuer, C.E., 1979. The application of heat pipes on the Trans-Alaska pipeline. U.S. Army, CRREL, Hanover, New Hampshire, Special Report 79-26, 33 p.

Hoelzle, M.W., Haeberli, W. and Keller, F. 1993. "Application of BTS-measurements for modelling mountain permafrost distribution." Proceedings, Sixth International Conference on Permafrost, Beijing, 1993, South China University of Technology Press, Vol.1, pp.272-277.

Hopkins, D.M., 1949. "Thaw lakes and thaw sinks in the Imuruk Lake area, Seward Peninsula, Alaska." Journal of Geology, Vol. 57, pp.119-131.

Hopkins, D.M., Karlstrom, T.D. and others, 1955. "Permafrost and ground water in Alaska." U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 264-F, pp.113-146.

Hughes, O.L., 1969. Distribution of open-system pingos in central Yukon Territory with respect to glacial limits. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Paper 69-34, 8 p.

Hughes, O.L., 1972. "Surficial geology and land classification." Proceedings Canadian Northern Pipeline Conference, Ottawa, Ontario, February 1972, National Research Council Canada, Associate Committee on Geotechnical Research, Ottawa, Technical Memorandum No. 104, pp.17-24.

Hunter, J.A., 1984. "Geophysical techniques for subsea permafrost investigations." Final Proceedings Fourth International Conference on Permafrost, Fairbanks, Alaska, July 1983, U.S. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp.88-89.

Hunter, J.A., Judge, A.S., MacAulay, H.A., Good, R.L., Gagne, R.M. and Burns, R.A., 1976. The occurrence of permafrost and frozen sub-seabottom materials in the southern Beaufort Sea. Environment Canada, Ottawa, Beaufort Sea Technical Report No. 22: Beaufort Sea Project, 174 p.

Huschke, R.E. (Editor), 1959. Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society, 638 p.

Hutchinson, J.N., 1968. "Mass movement." In: Encyclopedia of Geomorphology (R.W. Fairbridge, Editor), Reinhold Book Corporation, New York, N.Y., pp.688-689.

J

Jahn, A., 1975. Problems of the periglacial zone (Zagadnienia strefy peryglacjalnej). Warsaw, Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 223 p.

Johnston, G.H. (Editor), 1981. Permafrost: Engineering Design and Construction. John Wiley & Sons, Canada Ltd., Toronto, 540 p.

Judge, A.S., 1982. "Natural gas hydrates in Canada." The Roger J.E. Brown Memorial Volume, Proceedings Fourth Canadian Permafrost Conference, Calgary, Alberta, March 1981, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, pp.320-328.

Jumikis, A.R., 1977. Glossary of terms in thermal soil mechanics. Rutgers University, New Jersey, Engineering Research Publication No. 57, 155 p.

K

Kaplan, I.R., 1974. "Introduction." In: Natural Gases in Marine Sediments (I.R. Kaplan, Editor), Plenum Press, New York, N.Y., pp.1-11.

King, M.S., Bamford, T.S. and Kurfurst, P.J., 1974. "Ultrasonic velocity measurements on frozen rocks and soils." Proceedings Symposium on Permafrost Geophysics, Calgary, Alberta, National Research Council Canada, Associate Committee on Geotechnical Research, Ottawa, Technical Memorandum No. 113, pp.35-42.

Konrad, J-M. and Morgenstern, N.R., 1983. "Frost susceptibility of soils in terms of their segregation potential." Proceedings Fourth International Conference on Permafrost, Fairbanks, Alaska, July 1983, U.S. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp.660-665.

Konrad, J-M. and Morgenstern, N.R., 1984. "Frost heave prediction of chilled pipelines buried in unfrozen soils." Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp.100-115.

Krumme, O., 1935. Frost und Schnee in ihrer Wirkung auf den Boden im Hochtaunus. Rhein-Mainische Forschungen, 13, 73 p.

Kudryavtsev, V.A. (Editor), 1978. Obshcheye merzlotovedeniya (Geokriologiya) (General permafrost science) In Russian. Izd. 2, (Edu 2) Moskva (Moscow), Izdatel'stvo Moskovskogo Universiteta, (Moscow University Editions), 404 p.

L

Lachenbruch, A.H., 1959. "Periodic heat flow in a stratified medium with application to permafrost problems." U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 1083-A, pp.1-36.

Lachenbruch, A.H., 1962. Mechanics of thermal contraction cracks and ice-wedge polygons in permafrost. U.S. Geological Survey, Special Paper 70, 69 p.

Lachenbruch, A.H., 1966. "Contraction theory of ice-wedge polygons: a qualitative discussion." Proceedings Permafrost International Conference, Lafayette, Indiana, November 1963, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., Publication 1287, pp.63-71.

Ladanyi, B., 1972. "An engineering theory of creep of frozen soils." Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp.63-80.

Ladanyi, B., 1981. "Mechanical behaviour of frozen soils." In: Mechanics of Structured Media, Proceedings International Symposium on the Mechanical Behaviour of Structured Media, Ottawa, Canada, May 1981. (A.P.S. Selvadurai, Editor) Part B, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp.205-245.

Lawson, D.E. and Brown, J., 1978. "Disturbance of permafrost, massive ground ice, and surficial materials." In: Tundra disturbance and recovery following the 1949 exploratory drilling, Fish Creek, Northern Alaska by D.E. Lawson et al., U.S. Army, CRREL, Hanover, New Hampshire, Report 78-28, pp.14-24.

Linell, K.A., and Kaplar, C.W., 1966. "Description and classification of frozen soils." Proceedings Permafrost International Conference, Lafayette, Indiana, November 1963, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., Publication 1287, pp.481-487.

Linell, K.A. and Lobacz, E.F., 1980. Design and construction of foundations in areas of deep seasonal frost and permafrost. U.S. Army, CRREL, Hanover, New Hampshire, Special Report 80-34, 320 p.

Long, E.L., 1966. "The Long Thermopile." Proceedings Permafrost International Conference, Lafayette, Indiana, November 1963. U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., Publication 1287, pp.487-491.

Lunardini, V.J., 1978. "Theory of n-factors and correlation of data." Proceedings Third International Conference on Permafrost, Edmonton, Alberta, July 1978, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Vol. 1, pp.41-46.

Lunardini, V.J., 1981. Heat Transfer in Cold Climates. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, N.Y., 704 p.

Lundqvist, S., 1962. "Patterned ground and related phenomena in Sweden." Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Series C, No. 583.

Lundqvist, J., 1969. "Earth and ice mounds: A terminological discussion." In: The Periglacial Environment (T.L. Pewe, Editor), McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, pp.203-215.

Lundqvist, S. and Mattsson, J.O., 1965. "Studies on the thermal structure of pals." Svensk Geografisk Aargbok, Vol. 41, pp.38-49

M

Mackay, J.R., 1965. "Gas-domed mounds in permafrost, Kendall Island, N.W.T." Geographical Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp.105-115.

Mackay, J.R., 1966. "Segregated epigenetic ice and slumps in permafrost, Mackenzie Delta area, N.W.T." Geographical Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp.59-80.

Mackay, J.R., 1970. "Disturbances to the tundra and forest tundra environment of the western Arctic." Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp.420-432.

Mackay, J.R., 1971. "The origin of massive icy beds in permafrost, western Arctic coast, Canada." Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp.397-422.

Mackay, J.R., 1972a. "Offshore permafrost and ground ice, southern Beaufort Sea, Canada." Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 11, pp.1550-1561.

Mackay, J.R., 1972b. "The world of underground ice." Annals Association American Geographers, Vol. 62, No. 1, pp.1-22.

Mackay, J.R., 1973a. "Problems in the origin of massive icy beds, western Arctic coast, Canada." Proceedings Second International Conference on Permafrost, Yakutsk, U.S.S.R., July 1973, North American Contribution, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., pp.223-228.

Mackay, J.R., 1973b. "The growth of pingos, western Arctic coast, Canada." Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp.979-1004.

Mackay, J.R., 1974a. "Measurement of upward freezing above permafrost with a self-positioning thermistor probe." Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Paper 74-1, Part B, pp.250-251.

Mackay, J.R., 1974b. "Reticulate ice veins in permafrost, northern Canada." Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp.230-237.

Mackay, J.R., 1975. "Relict ice wedges, Pelly Island, N.W.T." Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Paper 75-1, pp.469-470.

Mackay, J.R., 1978. "Freshwater shelled invertebrate indicators of paleoclimate in northwestern Canada during late glacial times: Discussion." Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp.461-462.

Mackay, J.R., 1979. "Pingos of the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula area, Northwest Territories." Geographie physique et Quaternaire, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp.3-61.

Mackay, J.R., 1980. "The origin of hummocks, western Arctic coast, Canada." Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 17, No. 8, pp.996-1006.

Mackay, J.R., 1983. "Downward water movement into frozen ground, western Arctic coast, Canada." Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp.120-134.

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