Data Fields - SMAP L3 Radar Northern Hemisphere Daily 3 km EASE-Grid Freeze/Thaw State

This page provides a description of all data fields within the SMAP L3 Radar Northern Hemisphere Daily 3 km EASE-Grid Freeze/Thaw State (SPL3FTA) product. The data are grouped into four main HDF5 groups:

For a description of metadata fields for this product, refer to the Metadata Fields document.

Ancillary_Data [top]

Tables 1-3 describe the data fields of a typical SPL3FTA descending north polar granule. All data element arrays are one-dimensional with a size "N," where N is the number of valid cells from the radar swath that appear on the grid.

Table 1. Data Fields for Ancillary_Data
Data Field Name Shape Concept Byte Signed Unit Min Max Fill/Gap Value
altitude_dem AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 m 0 10000 -9999.0
altitude_std_dev AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 m 0 1000 -9999.0
landcover_class AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array enum uint32 4 n/a 0 16 254
open_water_body_fraction AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 normalized 0 1 -9999.0

Freeze_Thaw_Retrieval_Data [top]

Table 2. Data Fields for Freeze_Thaw_Retrieval_Data
Data Field Name Shape Concept Byte Signed Unit Min Max Fill/Gap Value
EASE_column_index AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array integer uint16 2 N/A 0 65535 65534
EASE_row_index AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array integer uint16 2 N/A 0 65535 65534
data_sampling_density AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 km 0 2 -9999.0
freeze_reference AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 dB -999999.9 999999.9 -9999.0
freeze_reference_date AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array string char 10 N/A 2013-01-01 2023-12-31 -9999.0
freeze_thaw AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array boolean uint8 1 N/A 0 1 254
freeze_thaw_time_seconds AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float64 8 seconds -999999.9 999999.9 -9999.0
freeze_thaw_time_utc AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array string char 13 N/A 00:00:00.000Z 00:00:00.000Z N/A
freeze_thaw_uncertainty AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 N/A -999999.9 999999.9 -9999.0
latitude AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 degrees -90 90 N/A
longitude AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 degrees -180 180 N/A
reference_image_threshold AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 normalized -999999.9 999999.9 -9999.0
retrieval_qual_flag AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array bit flag uint32 4 N/A N/A N/A 65534
surface_flag AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array bit flag uint32 4 N/A N/A N/A 65534
thaw_reference AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 dB -999999.9 999999.9 -9999.0
thaw_reference_date AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array string char 10 N/A 2013-01-01 2023-12-31 N/A
transition_direction LatCell_LonCell_Array boolean uint8 1 N/A 0 1 254
transition_state_flag LatCell_LonCell_Array boolean uint8 1 N/A 0 1 254

Metadata [top]

For a description of metadata fields for this product, refer to the Metadata Fields document.

Radar_Data [top]

Table 3. Data Fields for Radar_Data
Data Field Name Shape Concept Byte Signed Unit Min Max Fill/Gap Value
kp_hh AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 normalized 0.0 5.0 -9999.0
kp_vv AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 normalized 0.0 5.0 -9999.0
kp_xpol AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 normalized 0.0 5.0 -9999.0
sigma0_hh_mean AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 normalized 0.0 1.0 -9999.0
sigma0_qual_flag_hh AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array bit flag uint16 2 N/A N/A N/A 4294967294
sigma0_qual_flag_vv AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array bit flag uint16 2 N/A N/A N/A 4294967294
sigma0_qual_flag_xpol AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array bit flag uint16 2 N/A N/A N/A 4294967294
sigma0_vv_mean AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 normalized 0.0 1.0 -9999.0
sigma0_xpol_mean AMPM_LatCell_LonCell_Array real float32 4 normalized 0.0 1.0 -9999.0

Data Field Definitions [top]

altitude_dem

The Earth surface elevation within the 3km cell.

altitude_std_dev

The standard deviation of the Earth surface elevation within the 3km cell. This element provides a surface roughness measure.

landcover_class

An enumerated type that specifies the predominant surface vegetation found in the grid cell. See Table 4.

Table 4. Landcover Classification Values
Value Description
0 Water
1 Evergreen needleleaf forest
2 Evergreen broadleaf forest
3 Deciduous needleleaf forest
4 Deciduous broadleaf forest
5 Mixed forest
6 Closed shrubland
7 Open shrubland
8 Woody savanna
9 Savanna
10 Grassland
11 Mixed forest
12 Closed shrubland
13 Open shrubland
14 Woody savanna
15 Savanna
16 Grassland
>16 TBD

open_water_body_fraction

Fraction of the grid cell area covered by open water. Open water areas do not have vegetation at or on the water surface.

EASE_column_index

The column index of the 3 km EASE grid cell that contains the associated data. The AM (dimension AMPM=0) and PM (AMPM=1) observations are stored separately in the array.

EASE_row_index

The row index of the 3 km EASE grid cell that contains the associated data. The AM (dimension AMPM=0) and PM (AMPM=1) observations are stored separately in the array.

data_sampling_density

Number of sigma0 measurements gridded in the freeze-thaw data cell.

freeze_reference

Reference sigma0 value used as a basis to indicate frozen conditions.

freeze_reference_date

Date of the data used to determine the reference freeze condition.

freeze_thaw

Boolean that indicates whether soil within cell is frozen or thawed. A value of zero value implies thawed, a value of 1 implies frozen.

freeze_thaw_time_seconds

Time of spacecraft overpass relative to ground swath in UTC seconds from the J2000 epoch (1 January 2000 12:00z).

freeze_thaw_time_utc

Time of spacecraft overpass relative to ground swath in UTC.

freeze_thaw_uncertainty

Uncertainty assigned to quantify the confidence in the retrieved freeze-thaw state.

latitude

Latitude of the center of the Earth based grid cell.

longitude

Longitude of the center of the Earth based grid cell.

reference_image_threshold

Threshold based on reference freeze and thaw to differentiate between freeze and thaw conditions.

retrieval_qual_flag

Sequence of bit flags that indicate the conditions and the quality of the freeze-thaw retrieval. See Table 5.

Name Bit Position Interpretation of Values (0:off, 1:on)
Table 5. Retrieval Quality Bit Flag Definitions
Reserved 0 0: Always clear.
Freeze-thaw retrieval success flag 1 0: Freeze-thaw retrieval deemed good quality.
1: Freeze-thaw retrieval unsuccessful or poor quality.
Reserved 2-15 0: Always clear.
AM freeze-thaw data available flag 16 0: AM freeze-thaw data are available.
1: AM freeze-thaw data are not available.
PM freeze-thaw data available flag 17 0: PM freeze-thaw data are available.
1: PM freeze-thaw data are not available.
Undefined 18-31 0: Always clear.

surface_flag

Bit flags that record ambient surface conditions for the grid cell. See Table 6.

Table 6. Surface Condition Quality Bit Flag Definitions
Bit Position Bit Value and Interpretation
0 0: The fraction of the 3 km grid cell area that is over a permanent water body is less than metadata element PermanentWaterBodyThreshold. Determined by DEM. 3 km permanent water body flag.
1: The fraction of the 3 km grid cell area that is over a permanent water body is greater than or equal to metadata element PermanentWaterBodyThreshold. Determined by DEM.
1 0: Flag indicates either water less than given threshold, or water that was not detected in locations other than were permanent water is known to exist.
1: Flag indicates either water greater than given threshold, or water that was detected in locations other than were permanent water is known to exist.
2 0: The fraction of the 3 km grid cell area that is over urban development is less than metadata element UrbanAreaThreshold.
1: The fraction of the 3 km grid cell area that is over urban development is greater than or equal to metadata element UrbanAreaThreshold.
3 0: No precipitation detected within the 3 km grid cell when data were being acquired.
1: Precipitation detected within the 3 km grid cell when data were being acquired
4 0: No snow or ice detected within the 3 km grid cell.
1: Snow and/or ice were detected within the 3 km grid cell.
5 0: No frozen ground detected within the 3 km grid cell.
1: Frozen ground detected within the 3 km grid cell.
6 0: The variability of land elevation in the 3 km grid cell is less than metadata element MountainousTerrainThreshold.
1: The variability of land elevation in the 3 km grid cell is greater than or equal to metadata element MountainousTerrainThreshold.
7 0: The vegetation density within the 3 km grid cell is less than metadata element DenseVegetationThreshold.
1: The vegetation density within the 3 km grid cell area is greater than or equal to metadata element DenseVegetationThreshold.
9 0: Data within the the grid cell were not acquired in the nadir region of the swath where sigma0s may not meet the 3 km resolution requirement.
1: A significant fraction (TBD) of the 3 km grid cell data were acquired within the nadir region of the swath where sigma0s may not meet the 3 km resolution requirement.
10-15 Always clear.

thaw_reference

Reference sigma0 value used as a basis to indicate thawed conditions.

thaw_reference_date

Date of the data used to determine the reference thawed conditon.

transition_direction

Boolean that indicates transitional direction. 0 indicates AM frozen, PM thawed, 1 indicates AM thawed, PM frozen. Value is always zero if not in transition state.

transition_state_flag

Boolean that indicates whether soil is in transitional state from AM to PM on the same day. 0 indicates state is not in transition, 1 indicates state is in transition.

kp_hh

Overall error measure for HH-pol σ0 within the 3 km cell based on Level 1C kp values, includes calibration, RFI and contamination effects.

kp_vv

Overall error measure for VV-pol σ0 within the 3 km cell based on Level 1C kp values, includes calibration, RFI and contamination effects.

kp_xpol

Overall error measure for VV-pol σ0 within the 3 km cell based on Level 1C kp values, includes calibration, RFI and contamination effects.

sigma0_hh_mean

Standard deviation of 1 km instrument resolution HH-pol σ0 in the 3 km Earth grid cell.

sigma0_qual_flag_hh

Representative quality flags of horizontal polarization sigma0 measures in the grid cell. See Table 7.

Table 7. Sigma Quality Bit Flag Definitions
Bit Position Description of Values (0: off, 1: on)
0 0: All of the input forward looking horizontal polarization sigma0s have acceptable quality.
1: At least one of the forward looking horizontal polarization sigma0s has questionable or poor quality.
1 0: All of the input aft looking horizontal polarization sigma0s have acceptable quality.
1: At least one of the input aft looking horizontal polarization sigma0s has questionable or poor quality.
2 0: All of the input forward looking horizontal polarization sigma0s fall within the expected range.
1: At least one of the forward looking horizontal polarization sigma0s is out of range
3 0: All of the input aft looking horizontal polarization sigma0s falls within the expected range.
1: At least one of the input aft looking horizontal polarization sigma0s is out of range.
4 0: Insignificant RFI detected for all of the input forward looking horizontal polarization sigma0s in the grid cell.
1: RFI level is unsuitably high for at least one of the forward looking horizontal polarization sigma0s in the grid cell.
5 0: At least one of the input forward looking horizontal polarization sigma0s in the grid cell is based on repaired RFI.
1: Unable to repair at least one of the forward looking horizontal polarization sigma0s in the grid cell due to RFI.
6 0: Insignificant RFI detected for all of the input aft looking horizontal polarization sigma0s in the grid cell.
1: RFI level is unsuitably high for at least one of the aft looking horizontal polarization sigma0s in the grid cell.
7 0: At least one of the input aft looking horizontal polarization sigma0s in the grid cell is based on repaired RFI.
1: Unable to repair at least one of the aft looking horizontal polarization sigma0s in the grid cell due to RFI.
8 0: Faraday Rotation has little or no impact on forward looking horizontally polarized sigma0.
1: Faraday Rotation has significant impact on forward looking horizontally polarized sigma0.
9 0: Faraday Rotation has little or no impact on aft looking horizontally polarized sigma0.
1: Faraday Rotation has significant impact on aft looking horizontally polarized sigma0.
10-15 0: Always clear. ( Bits 10 and 11 are reserved for Radar Level 1C use. Bits 12 through 15 are reserved for Level 2 use. )

sigma0_qual_flag_vv

Representative quality flags of vertical polarization sigma0 measures in the grid cell. See Table 8.

Table 8. Sigma0 Vertical Polarization Quality Bit Flag Definitions
Bit Position Description of Values (0: off, 1: on)
0 0: All of the input forward looking vertical polarization sigma0s have acceptable quality.
1: At least one of the forward looking vertical polarization sigma0s has questionable or poor quality.
1 0: All of the input aft looking vertical polarization sigma0s have acceptable quality.
1: At least one of the input aft looking vertical polarization sigma0s has questionable or poor quality.
2 0: All of the input forward looking vertical polarization sigma0s fall within the expected range.
1: At least one of the forward looking vertical polarization sigma0s is out of range
3 0: All of the input aft looking vertical polarization sigma0s falls within the expected range.
1: At least one of the input aft looking vertical polarization sigma0s is out of range.
4 0: Insignificant RFI detected for all of the input forward looking vertical polarization sigma0s in the grid cell.
1: RFI level is unsuitably high for at least one of the forward looking vertical polarization sigma0s in the grid cell.
5 0: At least one of the input forward looking vertical polarization sigma0s in the grid cell is based on repaired RFI.
1: Unable to repair at least one of the forward looking vertical polarization sigma0s in the grid cell due to RFI.
6 0: Insignificant RFI detected for all of the input aft looking vertical polarization sigma0s in the grid cell.
1: RFI level is unsuitably high for at least one of the aft looking vertical polarization sigma0s in the grid cell.
7 0: At least one of the input aft looking vertical polarization sigma0s in the grid cell is based on repaired RFI.
1: Unable to repair at least one of the aft looking vertical polarization sigma0s in the grid cell due to RFI.
8 0: Faraday Rotation has little or no impact on forward looking horizontally polarized sigma0.
1: Faraday Rotation has significant impact on forward looking horizontally polarized sigma0.
9 0: Faraday Rotation has little or no impact on aft looking horizontally polarized sigma0.
1: Faraday Rotation has significant impact on aft looking horizontally polarized sigma0.
10-15 0: Always clear. (Bits 10 and 11 are reserved for Radar Level 1C use. Bits 12 through 15 are reserved for Level 2 use.)

sigma0_qual_flag_xpol

Representative quality flags of cross polarization sigma0 measures in the grid cell. See Table 9.

Table 9. Sigma Quality Bit Flag Definitions
Bit Position Description of Values (0: off, 1: on)
0 0: All of the input forward looking cross-polarized sigma0s have acceptable quality.
1: At least one of the forward looking cross-polarized sigma0s has questionable or poor quality.
1 0: All of the input aft looking cross-polarized sigma0s have acceptable quality.
1: At least one of the input aft looking cross-polarized sigma0s has questionable or poor quality.
2 0: All of the input forward looking cross-polarized sigma0s fall within the expected range.
1: At least one of the forward looking cross-polarized sigma0s is out of range
3 0: All of the input aft looking cross-polarized sigma0s falls within the expected range.
1: At least one of the input aft looking cross-polarized sigma0s is out of range.
4 0: Insignificant RFI detected for all of the input forward looking cross-polarized sigma0s in the grid cell.
1: RFI level is unsuitably high for at least one of the forward looking cross-polarized sigma0s in the grid cell.
5 0: At least one of the input forward looking cross-polarized sigma0s in the grid cell is based on repaired RFI.
1: Unable to repair at least one of the forward looking cross-polarized sigma0s in the grid cell due to RFI.
6 0: Insignificant RFI detected for all of the input aft looking cross-polarized sigma0s in the grid cell.
1: RFI level is unsuitably high for at least one of the aft looking cross-polarized sigma0s in the grid cell.
7 0: At least one of the input aft looking cross-polarized sigma0s in the grid cell is based on repaired RFI.
1: Unable to repair at least one of the aft looking cross-polarized sigma0s in the grid cell due to RFI.
8 0: Faraday Rotation has little or no impact on forward looking horizontally polarized sigma0.
1: Faraday Rotation has significant impact on forward looking horizontally polarized sigma0.
9 0: Faraday Rotation has little or no impact on aft looking horizontally polarized sigma0.
1: Faraday Rotation has significant impact on aft looking horizontally polarized sigma0.
10-15 0: Always clear. (Bits 10 and 11 are reserved for Radar Level 1C use. Bits 12 through 15 are reserved for Level 2 use.)

sigma0_vv_mean

Mean of 1 km instrument resolution VV-pol σ0 in the 3 km Earth grid cell.

sigma0_xpol_mean

Mean of 1 km instrument resolution HV-pol σ0 in the 3 km Earth grid cell.

Fill/Gap Values [top]

SMAP data products employ fill and gap values to indicate when no valid data appear in a particular data element. Fill values ensure that data elements retain the correct shape. Gap values locate portions of a data stream that do not appear in the output data file.

Fill values appear in the SMAP SPL3SMA Product when the SPL3SMA SPS can process some, but not all, of the input data for a particular swath grid cell. Fill data may appear in the product in any of the following circumstances:

  • One of Science Production Software (SPS) executables that generate the SMAP SPL3SMA Product is unable to calculate a particular science or engineering data value. The algorithm encounters an error. The error disables generation of valid output. The SPS reports a fill value instead.
  • Some of the required science or engineering algorithmic input are missing. Data over the region that contributes to particular grid cell may appear in only some of the input data streams. Since data are valuable, the SPL3SMA Product records any outcome that can be calculated with the available input. Missing data appear as fill values.
  • Non-essential information is missing from the input data stream. The lack of non-essential information does not impair the algorithm from generating needed output. The missing data appear as fill values.
  • Fill values appear in the input radiometer L1B_TB product. If only some of the input that contributes to a particular grid cell is fill data, the Level SPL3SMA SPS will most likely be able to generate some output. However, some portion of the SPL3SMA output for that grid cell may appear as fill values.

SMAP data products employ a specific set of data values to connote that an element is fill. The selected values that represent fill are dependent on the data type.

No valid value in the SPL3SMA product is equal to the values that represent fill. If any exceptions should exist in the future, the SPL3SMA content will provide a means for users to discern between elements that contain fill and elements that contain genuine data values. This document will also contain a description of the method used to ascertain which elements are fill and which elements are genuine.

The SPL3SMA product records gaps when entire frames within the time span of a particular data granule do not appear. Gaps can occur under one of two conditions:

  • One or more complete frames of data are missing from all data streams.
  • The subset of input data that is available for a particular frame is not sufficient to process any frame output.

The Level 3_SM_A Product records gaps in the product level metadata. The following conditions will indicate that no gaps appear in the data product:

  • Only one instance of the attributes Extent/rangeBeginningDateTime and Extent/rangeEndingDateTime will appear in the product metadata.
  • The character string stored in metadata element Extent/rangeBeginningDateTime will match the character string stored in metadata element OrbitMeasuredLocation/halfOrbitStartDateTime.
  • The character string stored in metadata element Extent/rangeEndingDateTime will match the character string stored in metadata element OrbitMeasuredLocation/halfOrbitStopDateTime.

One of two conditions will indicate that gaps appear in the data product:

  • The time period covered between Extent/rangeBeginningDateTime and Extent/RangeEndingDateTime does not cover the entire half orbit as specified in OrbitMeasuredLocation/halfOrbitStartDateTime and OrbitMeasuredLocation/halfOrbitStartDateTime.
  • More than one pair of Extent/rangeBeginningDateTime and Extent/rangeEndingDateTime appears in the data product. Time periods within the time span of the half orbit that do not fall within the sets of Extent/rangeBeginningDateTime and Extent/rangeEndingDateTime constitute data gaps.

Notations [top]

Table 10 lists the notations used in this document.

Table 10. Notation Definitions
Notation Definition
Int8 8-bit (1-byte) signed integer
Int16 16-bit (2-byte) signed integer
Int32 32-bit (4-byte) signed integer
Uint8 8-bit (1-byte) unsigned integer
Uint16 16-bit (2-byte) unsigned integer
Float32 32-bit (4-byte) floating-point integer
Float64 64-bit (8-byte) floating-point integer
Char 8-bit character
H-pol Horizontally polarized
V-pol Vertically polarized