Published Research

The following references cite studies that used data distributed by NSIDC. Please contact User Services if you have a reference you would like to share on this page.


Rott, H., F. Mueller, T. Nagler, D. Floricioiu, and M. Eineder. 2011. Mass Deficit of Glaciers at the Northern Antarctic Peninsula Derived from Satellite Borne Sar and Altimeter Measurements. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2011 IEEE International, 24-29 July 2011. : 3645-3648.

Shtain, Z., and S. Filin. 2011. Accuracy and Reliability Assessment of GLAS Measurements over Israel. ISPRS Workshop Laser Scanning 2011, Calgary, Alberta.

Siegfried, M. R., R. L. Hawley, and J. F. Burkhart. 2011. High-Resolution Ground-Based Gps Measurements Show Intercampaign Bias in Icesat Elevation Data near Summit, Greenland. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49(9): 3393-3400.

Simard, M., N. Pinto, J. B. Fisher, and A. Baccini. 2011. Mapping Forest Canopy Height Globally with Spaceborne Lidar. Journal of Geophysical Research 116: G04021. doi:

Toutin, T. 2011. Digital Elevation Model Generation over Glacierized Region. Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers, edited by Singh, P. H., Umesh Kumar Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Wang, X.W., X. Cheng, P. Gong, H. B. Huang, Z. Li and X. W. Li. 2011. Earth Science Applications of ICESat/GLAS: a Review. International Journal of Remote Sensing  32(23): 8837-8864. doi:

Wen, H., G. Zhu, P. Cheng, X. Chang, and H. Liu. 2011. The Ice Sheet Height Changes and Mass Variations in Antarctica by Using Icesat and Grace Data. International Journal of Image and Data Fusion 2(3): 255-265. doi:

Xiaodong, W., et al. 2011. Retrieval of Sea Ice Thickness of Ross Sea with Icesat/Glas Measurements. International Conference on Remote Sensing, Environment and Transportation Engineering (RSETE 2011): 4381-4384.

Yu, J. 2011. Temporal Variations of Antarctic Blue Ice Extent: A Possible Mass Balance Indicator. Polar Record  47: 348-355. doi:

Yu, Jaehyung, Hongxing Liu, Lei Wang, Kenneth C. Jezek and Joonghyeok Heo. 2011. Blue Ice Areas and Their Topographical Properties in the Lambert Glacier, Amery Iceshelf System Using Landsat Etm+, Icesat Laser Altimetry and Aster Gdem Data. Antarctic Science-First View p 1-16. doi:

Zhang, G., H. Xie, S. Duan, M. Tian, and D. Yi. 2011. Water Level Variation of Lake Qinghai from Satellite and in situ Measurements under Climate Change. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing 5: 53532. doi:

Zhang, G., H. Xie, S. Kang, D. Yi, and S. F. Ackley. 2011. Monitoring Lake Level Changes on the Tibetan Plateau Using Icesat Altimetry Data (2003-2009). Remote Sensing of Environment  115(7): 1733-1742. doi:


Alberti, M., and D. Biscaro. 2010. Height Variation Detection in Polar Regions from ICESat Satellite Altimetry. Computers & Geosciences 36(1): p 1-9.

Ballagh, Lisa M., Bruce H. Raup, Ruth E. Duerr, Siri Jodha S. Khalsa, Christopher Helm, Doug Fowler, and Amruta Gupte. 2010. Representing Scientific Data Sets in KML: Methods and Challenges. Computers & Geosciences  37(1): 57-64.

Berthier E., E. Schiefer, G. K. C. Clarke, B. Menounos, and F. Remy. 2010. Contribution of Alaskan Glaciers to Sea Level Rise Derived from Satellite Imagery. Nature Geoscience  3(2): 92-95. doi:

Brunt, K. M., H. A. Fricker, L. Padman, T. A. Scambos, and S. O'Neel. 2010. Mapping the Grounding Zone of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Using ICESat Laser Altimetry. Annals of Glaciology  51(55): 71-79.

Chen, Q. 2010. Assessment of Terrain Elevation Derived from Satellite Laser Altimetry Over Mountainous Forest Areas Using Airborne Lidar Data. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing  65(1): 111-122.

Chen, Q. 2010. Retrieving Canopy Height of Forests and Woodlands Over Mountainous Areas in the Pacific Coast Region Using Satellite Laser Altimetry. Remote Sensing of Environment. doi:

Chen, Q. 2010. Retrieving Vegetation Height of Forests and Woodlands over Mountainous Areas in the Pacific Coast Region Using Satellite Laser Altimetry. Remote Sensing of Environment  114(7): 1610-1627. doi:

Doi, K., K. Shibuya, Y. Aoyama, H. Ikeda, and Y. Fukuda. 2010. Observed Gravity Change at Syowa Station Induced by Antarctic Ice Sheet Mass Change. Gravity, Geoid and Earth Observation  135(7): 557-562.

Dolan, K. A., G. C. Hurtt, J. Q. Chambers, R. O. Dubayah, S. Frolking, and J. G. Masek. 2010. Using ICESat's Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) to Assess Large-scale Forest Disturbance Caused by Hurricane Katrina. Remote Sensing of Environment  115(1): 86-96.

Duncanson, L. I., K. O. Niemann, and M. A. Wulder. 2010. Estimating Forest Canopy Height and Terrain Relief from GLAS Waveform Metrics. Remote Sensing of Environment  114(1): 138-154.

Duncanson, L. I., K. O. Niemann, and M. A. Wulder. 2010. Integration of GLAS and Landsat TM data for Aboveground Biomass Estimation. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 36(2): 129-141.

Fricker, H. A., T. Scambos, S. Carter, C. Davis, T. Haran, and I. Joughin. 2010. Synthesizing Multiple Remote-Sensing Techniques for Subglacial Hydrologic Mapping: Application to a Lake System Beneath MacAyeal Ice Stream, West Antarctica. Journal of Glaciology 56(196): 187-199.

Goetz, S. J., M. Sun, A. Baccini, and P. S. A. Beck. 2010. Synergistic Use of Spaceborne Lidar and Optical Imagery for Assessing Forest Disturbance: An Alaska Case Study. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences  115: G00e07.

Gonzalez, J. H., M. Bachmann, R. Scheiber, and G. Krieger. 2010. Definition of ICESat Selection Criteria for Their Use as Height References for TanDEM-X. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions  48(6): 2750-2757.

Humbert, A. 2010. The Temperature Regime of Fimbulisen, Antarctica. Annals of Glaciology  51(55): 56-64.

Jansen, D., B. Kulessa, P. R. Sammonds, A. Luckman, E. King, and N. F. Glasser. 2010. Present Stability of the Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula. Journal of Glaciology  56(198): 593-600.

Kuwano-Yoshida, A., T. Enomoto, and W. Ohfuchi. 2010. An Improved Pdf Cloud Scheme for Climate Simulations. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society  136(651): 1583-1597. doi:

Lindstrot, R., R. Preusker, and J. Fischer. 2010. Empirical Correction of Stray Light Within the MERIS Oxygen A Band Channel. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology  27(7): 1185-1194.

Moholdt, G., C. Nuth, J. O. Hagen, and J. Kohler. 2010. Recent Elevation Changes of Svalbard Glaciers Derived from ICESat Laser Altimetry. Remote Sensing of Environment  114(11): 2756-2767.

Moholdt, G., J. O. Hagen, T. Eiken, and T. V. Schuler. 2010. Geometric Changes and Mass Balance of the Austfonna Ice Cap, Svalbard. The Cryosphere  4(1): 21-34.

North, P. R. J., J. A. B. Rosette, J. C. Suarez, and S. O. Los. 2010. A Monte Carlo Radiative Rransfer Model of Satellite Waveform LiDAR. International Journal of Remote Sensing  31(5): 1343-1358.

Nuth, C., G. Moholdt, J. Kohler, J. O. Hagen, and A. Kääb. 2010. Svalbard Glacier Elevation Changes and Contribution to Sea Level Rise. Journal of Geophysical Research  115(F01008). doi:

Pirotti, F. 2010. Icesat/Glas Waveform Signal Processing for Ground Cover Classification: State of the Art. Rivista Italiana di Telerilevamento  42(2): 13-26.

Rosette, J. A. B., P. R. J. North, J. C. Suarez, and S. O. Los. 2010. Uncertainty Within Satellite LiDAR Estimations of Vegetation and Topography. International Journal of Remote Sensing  31(5): 1325-1342.

Shuman, C. A., et al. 2010. Elevation Change of Drangajökull, Iceland from Cloud-Cleared Icesat Repeat Profiles and Gps Ground-Survey Data. 66th Eastern Snow Conference, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada 1: 115-127.

Tsutomu, Y., D. Koichiro, and S. Kazuo. 2010. Combined Use of InSAR and GLAS Data to Produce an Accurate DEM of the Antarctic Ice Sheet: Examplefrom the Breivika-Asuka Station Area. Polar Science  4(1): p 1-17.

Wen, Jiahong, et al. 2010. Basal Melting and Freezing Under the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. Journal of Glaciology  56(195): 81-90.

Williams, S., and A. M. Howard. 2010. Developing Monocular Visual Pose Estimation for Arctic Environments. Journal of Field Robotics 27(2): 145-157. doi:

Wu, H., and Y. Xing. 2010. Wavelet Transform and Its Application to Icesat-Glas Full Waveform Data. 2010 International Symposium on Intelligence Information Processing and Trusted Computing (IPTC), 28-29 Oct. 2010: 373-377. doi:

Xing, Y. Q., A. de Gier, J. J. Zhang, and L. H. Wang.  2010. An Improved Method for Estimating Forest Canopy Height Using ICESat-GLAS Full Waveform Data Over Sloping Terrain: A Case Study in Changbai Mountains, China. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation  12(5): 385-392.

Yu, J. Y., H. X. Liu, K. C. Jezek, R. C. Warner, and J. H. Wen. 2010. Analysis of Velocity Field, Mass Balance, and Basal Melt of the Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf System by Incorporating Radarsat SAR Interferometry and ICESat Laser Altimetry Measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth  115: B11102.

Zhao, G., H. Xue, and F. Ling. 2010. Assessment of ASTER GDEM Performance by Comparing with SRTM and ICESat/GLAS Data in Central China. Paper read at 2010 18th International Conference on Geoinformatics, at Beijing.


Ahlgrimm, M., D. A. Randall, and M. Köhler. 2009. Evaluating Cloud Frequency of Occurrence and Cloud-Top Height Using Spaceborne Lidar Observations. Monthly Weather Review  137(12): 4225-4237.

Bamber, J. L., J. L. Gomez-Dans, and J. A. Griggs. 2009. A New 1 km Digital Elevation Model of the Antarctic Derived from Combined Satellite Radar and Laser Data - Part 1: Data and Methods. The Cryosphere  3: 101-111.

Bayer, B., W. H. Geissler, A. Eckstaller, and W. Jokat. 2009. Seismic Imaging of the Crust Beneath Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctic. Geophysical Journal International  178(2): 860-876.

Beaulieu, Alexandre, and Daniel Clavet. 2009. Accuracy Assessment of Canadian Digital Elevation Data Using ICESat. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 75(1): 81-86.

Becker, J. J., D. T. Sandwell, W. H. F. Smith, J. Braud, B. Binder, J. Depner, D. Fabre, J. Factor, S. Ingalls, and S. H. Kim. 2009. Global Bathymetry and Elevation Data at 30 Arc Seconds Resolution: SRTM30_PLUS. Marine Geodesy  32(4): 355-371.

Berthier, Etienne, R. Le Bris, L. Mabileau, L. Testut, and F. Rémy. 2009. Ice Wastage on the Kerguelen Islands (49°S, 69°E) Between 1963 and 2006. Journal of Geophysical Research  114(F03005). doi:

Braun, M., and A. Humbert. 2009. Recent Retreat of Wilkins Ice Shelf Reveals New Insights in Ice Shelf Breakup Mechanisms. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE  6(2): 263-267.

Carroll, M., C. DiMiceli, J. Townshend, P. Noojipady, and R. Sohlberg. 2009. UMD Global 250 Meter Land Water Mask User Guide. .

Carter, S. P., D. D. Blankenship, D. A. Young, and J. W. Holt. 2009. Using Radar-sounding Data to Identify the Distribution and Sources of Subglacial Water: Application to Dome C, East Antarctica. Journal of Glaciology  55(194): 1025-1040.

Carter, Sasha P., et al. 2009. Dynamic Distributed Drainage Implied by the Flow Evolution of the 1996–1998 Adventure Trench Subglacial Lake Discharge. Earth and Planetary Science Letters  283(1): 24-37.

Crétaux, Jean-François, Rene Létolle, and Stephane Calmant. 2009. Investigations on Aral Sea Regressions from Mirabilite Deposits and Remote Sensing. Aquatic Geochemistry  15(1-2): 277-291.

Dolan, K. A., J. G. Masek, C. Huang, and G. Sun. 2009. Regional Forest Growth Measured by Combining ICESat GLAS and Landsat Data. Journal of Geophysical Research  114(G00E05). doi:

DongChen, E., Qiang Shen, Ying Xu, and Gang Chen. 2009. High-accuracy Topographical Information extraction Based on Fusion of ASTER stereo-data and ICESat/GLAS Data in Antarctica. Science in China Series D-Earth Sciences  52(5): 714-722.

Drews, R., W. Rack, C. Wesche, and V. Helm. 2009. A Spatially Adjusted Elevation Model in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, Based on Differential SAR Interferometry. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions  47(8): 2501-2509.

Duong, Hieu, Roderik Lindenbergh, Norbert Pfeifer and George Vosselman. 2009. ICESat Full Waveform Altimetry Compared to Airborne Laser Scanning Altimetry Over The Netherlands. IEEE Transaction on Geoscience and Remote Sensing  47(10): 3365-3378.

Farrell, Sinead L., et al. 2009. Five years of Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard Measurements from the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans  114(C04008). doi:

Fowell, R. A., N. Smith, S. Bae, B. E. Schutz. 2009. Bad Stars. Annual American Astronautical Society Rocky Mountain Conference, AAS09-012, Breckenridge, Colorado.

Fricker, Helen A. and Ted Scambos. 2009. Connected Subglacial lLake activity on Lower Mercer and Whillans Ice Streams, West Antarctica, 2003–2008. Journal of Glaciology  55(190): 303-315.

Fricker, Helen A., et al. 2009. Mapping the Grounding Zone of the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica Using InSAR, MODIS and ICESat. Antarctic Science. doi:

Griggs, J. A. and J. L. Bamber. 2009. A New 1 km Digital Elevation Model of Antarctica Derived from Combined Radar and Laser Data – Part 2: Validation and Error Estimates. The Cryosphere  3: 113–123.

Helmer, E. H., M. A. Lefsky, and D. A. Roberts. 2009. Biomass Accumulation Rates of Amazonian Secondary Forest and Biomass of Old-growth Forests from Landsat Time Series and the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 27 January 2009 3: 33505.

Huber, M., B. Wessel, D. Kosmann, A. Felbier, V. Schwieger, M. Habermeyer, A. Wendleder, and A. Roth. 2009. Ensuring Globally the TanDEM-X Height Accuracy: Analysis of the Reference Data Sets ICESat, SRTM and KGPS-tracks. Paper read at Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2009 IEEE International, IGARSS 2009.

King, Matt A., et al. 2009. A 4-Decade Record of Elevation Change of the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface  114(C04004). doi:

Korona, J., E. Berthier, M. Bernard, F. Rémy, and E. Thouvenot. 2009. SPIRIT. SPOT 5 Stereoscopic Survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images and Topographies During the Fourth International Polar Year (2007-2009). ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 64(2): 204-212. doi:

Kumar, A., and S. Vyas. 2009. Cartosat-1 Height Product and ICESat/GLAS Data for Digital Elevation Surface Generation. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing  37(4): 565-572.

Kurtz, N. T., T. Markus, D. J. Cavalieri, L. C. Sparling, W. B. Krabill, A. J. Gasiewski, and J. G. Sonntag. 2009. Estimation of Sea Ice Thickness Distributions Through the Combination of Snow Depth and Satellite Laser Altimetry Data. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans  114: C10007. Art. #C10007. doi:

Kwok, R., G. F. Cunningham, M. Wensnahan, I. Rigor, H. J. Zwally, and D. Yi. 2009. Thinning and Volume Loss of the Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Cover: 2003–2008. Journal of Geophysical Research 114(C07005). doi:

Lewis, T., P. Francus, and R. S. Bradley. 2009. Recent Occurrence of Large Jökulhlaups at Lake Tuborg, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut. Journal of Paleolimnology 41(3): 491-506.

Lin, W., M. Zhang, and N. G. Loeb. 2009. Seasonal Variation of the Physical Properties of Marine Boundary Layer Clouds Off the California Coast. Journal of Climate  22(10): 2624-2638.

Lindstrot, Rasmus, Rene Preusker, and Jürgen Fischer. 2009. The Retrieval of Land Surface Pressure from MERIS Measurements in the Oxygen A Band.. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology  26(7): 1367-1377.

Muskett, Reginald R., et al. 2009. Airborne and Spaceborne DEM- and Laser Altimetry-derived Surface Elevation and Volume Changes of the Bering Glacier System, Alaska, USA, and Yukon, Canada, 1972–2006. Journal of Glaciology  55(190): 316-326.

Nelson, Ross, et al. 2009. Estimating Quebec Provincial Forest Resources Using ICESat/GLAS. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere  39(4): 862-881.

Nelson, Ross, et al. 2009. Estimating Siberian Timber volume Using MODIS and ICESat/GLAS. Remote Sensing of Environment  113: 691-701.

Plana-Fattori, Artemio, et al. 2009. Comparison of High-Cloud Characteristics as Estimated by Selected Spaceborne Observations and Ground-Based Lidar Datasets. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology  48(6): 1142-1160.

Pritchard, H. D., R. J. Arthern, D. G. Vaughan, and L. A. Edwards. 2009. Extensive Dynamic Thinning on the Margins of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Nature  461(7266): 971-975.

Rosette, J. A., P. R. J. North, J. C. Suárez, and J. D. Armston. 2009. A Comparison of Biophysical Parameter Retrieval for Forestry Using Airborne and Satellite LiDAR. International Journal of Remote Sensing  30 (19): 5229-5237.

Scambos, Ted, Helen Amanda Fricker, Cheng-Chien Liu, Jennifer Bohlander, James Fastook, Aitbala Sargent, Robert Massom, and An-Ming Wu. 2009. Ice Shelf Disintegration by Plate Bending and Hydro-fracture: Satellite Observations and Model Results of the 2008 Wilkins Ice Shelf Break-ups. Earth and Planetary Science Letters  280(1-4): 51-60.

Scott, J. B. T., et al. 2009. Increased Rate of Acceleration on Pine Island Glacier Strongly Coupled to Changes in Gravitational Driving Stress. The Cryosphere Discussions  3: 223-240.

Shi, H., Y. Lu, L. Bao, Z. Du, and Z. Zhang. 2009. 2003-2008 Ice Sheet Elevation Change on the Lake Vostok, Antarctica, from ICESat. Paper read at 2008 International Workshop on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. ETT and GRS 2008. International Workshop on Education Technology and Training, 2008, at Shanghai.

Shi, H., Z. Du, Y. Lu, X. Hu, and X. Ke. 2009. Amery Ice Shelf Digital Elevation Model from GLAS and GMT. Paper read at 2009 Third International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Application, at NanChang, China.

Simard, M., L. E. Fatoyinbo, and N. Pinto. 2009. 3 Mangrove Canopy 3D Structure and Ecosystem Productivity Using Active Remote Sensing. Remote Sensing of Coastal Environments, edited by Y. Wang. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Slobbe, D. C., P. Ditmar, and R. C. Lindenbergh. 2009. Estimating the Rates of mass change, Ice Volume change and Snow Volume Change in Greenland from ICESat and GRACE Data. Geophysical Journal International  176(1): 95-106.

Smith, Benjamin E., et al. 2009. An inventory of Active Subglacial Lakes in Antarctica Detected by ICESat (2003–2008). Journal of Glaciology  54(192): 573-595.

Spreen, G., S. Kern, D. Stammer, and E. Hansen. 2009. Fram Strait Sea Ice Volume Export Estimated Between 2003 and 2008 from Satellite Data. Geophysical Research Letters  36: L19502. doi:

Vaughan, Mark A., Kathleen A. Powell, David M. Winker, Chris A. Hostetler, Ralph E. Kuehn, William H. Hunt, Brian J. Getzewich, Stuart A. Young, Zhaoyan Liu, and Matthew J. McGill. 2009. Fully Automated Detection of Cloud and Aerosol Layers in the CALIPSO Lidar Measurements. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology  26(10): 2034-2050.

Wesche, C., S. Riedel, and D. Steinhage. 2009. Precise Surface Topography of the Grounded Ice Ridges at the Ekstromisen, Antarctica, based on Several Geophysical Data sets. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing  64(4): 381-386.

Wuite, J., K. C. Jezek, X. Wu, K. Farness, and R. Carande. 2009. The Velocity Field and Flow Regime of David Glacier and Drygalski Ice Tongue, Antarctica. Polar Geography  32(3): 111-127.


Berthier E., and T. Toutin. 2008. SPOT5-HRS Digital Elevation Models and the Monitoring of Glacier Elevation Changes in North-West Canada and South-East Alaska. Remote Sensing of the Environment  112(5): 2443–2454.

Berthier, S., P. Chazette, et al. 2008. Comparison of Cloud Statistics from Spaceborne LIDAR Systems. Atmosphere Chemistry and Physics Discussions 8: 5269-5304.

Borsa, A. A., H. A. Fricker, et al. 2008. Topography of the Salar De Uyuni, Bolivia from Kinematic Gps. Geophysical Journal International 172(1): 31-40.

Boudreau, J., R. Nelson, et al. 2008. Regional Aboveground Gorest Biomass Using Airborne and Spaceborne LiDAR in Québec. Remote Sensing of the Environment  112(10): 3876-3890.

Braun, M., A. Humbert, et al. 2008. Changes of Wilkins Ice Shelf Over the Past 15 Years and Inferences on its Stability. The Cryosphere Discussions  2(3): 341-382.

Duong, V., R. Lindenbergh, et al. 2008. Single and Two Epoch Analysis of ICESat Full Waveform Data over Forested Areas. International Journal of Remote Sensing  29(5): 1453-1473.

Herzfeld, Ute C. et al. 2008. Elevation Changes in Pine Island Glacier, Walgreen Coast, Antarctica, Based on GLAS (2003) and ERS-1 (1995) Altimeter Data Analyses and Glaciological Implications. International Journal of Remote Sensing  29(19): 5533 - 5553.

Howat, I., B. Smith, et al. 2008. Rates of Southeast Greenland Ice Volume Loss from Combined ICESat and ASTER Observations. Geophysical Research Letters  35(L17505). doi:

Hulbe, C., T. Scambos, et al. 2008. Patterns of Glacier Response to Disintegration of the Larsen B Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula. Global and Planetary Change  63(1): p 1-8. doi: