When scientists talk about the cryosphere, they mean the places on Earth where water is in its solid form, frozen into ice or snow. Read more ...
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This study used ground-penetrating radar to map groundwater (sub- and supra-permafrost) and bedrock and permafrost constraints to water flow at Fort Wainright, Alaska. Active layer parameters, depth of perennial thaw, and permafrost dialectic permittivity were measured.