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Data Set ID:
G02180

SHEBA Reconnaissance Imagery, Version 1

This data set consists of optical band reconnaissance imagery of the Surface Heat Balance of the Arctic (SHEBA) site acquired between August 1997 and October 1998. The images cover a variable area on the order of 15 km by 40 km, at a resolution of about 1 m. Some, but not all of the images contain the SHEBA experiment platform, the Canadian icebreaker Des Groseillers, as it traversed the Arctic Ocean.

Geographic Coverage

Parameter(s):
  • Visible Wavelengths > Visible Imagery > Optical Band Imagery
  • Sea Ice
Spatial Coverage:
  • N: 80, S: 70, E: 130, W: -170

Spatial Resolution:
  • 1 m x 1 m
Temporal Coverage:
  • 25 August 1997 to 3 October 1998
Temporal Resolution: Varies
Data Format(s):
  • TIFF
Platform(s) Not specified
Sensor(s): Not specified
Version: V1
Data Contributor(s): Florence Fetterer, Norbert Untersteiner
Data Citation

As a condition of using these data, you must cite the use of this data set using the following citation. For more information, see our Use and Copyright Web page.

Fetterer, F. and N. Untersteiner. 2000. SHEBA Reconnaissance Imagery, Version 1. [Indicate subset used]. Boulder, Colorado USA. NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N50V89RX. [Date Accessed].

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Overview

This data set consists of optical band reconnaissance imagery of the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) site acquired between August 1997 and October 1998. The 57 images cover a variable area on the order of 15 km by 40 km, at a resolution of about 1 m. Some but not all of the images contain the SHEBA experiment platform (the Canadian icebreaker Des Groseillers).  Figure 4 shows a graphic of the ship track with the area covered. The imagery was released at the request of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Data were acquired as part of the Medea Environmental Intelligence and Applications Program. See Image Data for more information on using this imagery. Image subsets (about 20 MB) and thumbnails of the full images are available in the Metadata Table.

About the Images

Figure 1. Helicopter view of the SHEBA site during the height of the summer melt season. Click image for larger version.

In an unprecedented boon for Arctic science, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency has approved the release of imagery acquired for the SHEBA experiment site. Investigators will use the imagery to:

  • Characterize surface conditions and their impact on the net radiation balance
  • Locate instrument sites relative to ice features that may affect measurements
  • Parameterize ice albedo and melt pond development for inclusion in climate models
  • Study pond development in response to changes in temperature, cloud cover, and insolation
  • Apply to a variety of other applications

In 2013, R. Kwok authored a paper that provided information on uses for these data:

Kwok, R. 2014. Declassified high-resolution visible imagery for Arctic sea ice investigations: an overview. Remote Sensing of the Environment 142: 44-56. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2013.11.015.

The images below (from June 18, 1998) show how the SHEBA site appears in U.S. National Reconnaissance Imagery.
 

Figure 2. The square marks the location of the CCGS Des Groseilliers (a blow-up of this area is shown in Figure 3 at right). The image covers 7815 meters across the swath width, that is, diagonally across the image. Click image for larger version.

Figure 3. Close-up view of the Des Groseilliers (area included in the red square in Figure 2 at left). The ship is 322 feet (~98 meters) long, and in this image is oriented with the bow pointing to right or northeast. Note that the summer melt season is in progress; much of the ice is covered by dark melt ponds. Click image for larger version.

Detailed Data Description

Image Data

The Version 1.0 Imagery Data Set

Image data and additional image information are given in the Metadata Table. Uncompressed file sizes range from 200 to 700 MB. Please be sure your computer system and software are capable of manipulating very large images before you acquire any images. You may prefer to use the smaller image subsets, which is explained in The Imagery Subset section of this document.

Data are available in two projections Polar Stereographic and Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM), and three formats GeoTIFF, ERDAS Imagine, and Band Sequential Binary (BSQ). The images in Polar Stereographic projection have an embedded north arrow and scale bar. Associated header files contain corner point, image dimension, and projection information. The Polar Stereographic projection, the same projection used for many of NSIDC's passive microwave products, is true at 70 degrees North, with a central meridian of -45 degrees. The UTM projection is in Zone 4N.

The Image Order Form allows users to request images for staging on our FTP site or shipment on DVD. Table 1 summarizes naming conventions and describes file content.

Table 1. File Naming Convention and Content

File name example

Description

97AUG25_v1_polar_mapel.hdr

Header file for image in polar stereographic projection

97AUG25_v1_polar_mapel.tif

Image in GeoTIFF format, polar stereographic projection

97AUG25_v1_polar_mapel.img

Image in ERDAS Imagine format, polar stereographic projection

97AUG25_v1_polar_mapel.bsq

Image in band-sequential binary format, polar stereographic projection

97AUG25_v1_utm.hdr

Header file for image in UTM projection

97AUG25_v1_utm.tif

Image in GeoTIFF format, UTM projection

97AUG25_v1_utm.img

Image in ERDAS Imagine format, UTM projection

97AUG25_v1_utm.bsq

Image in band-sequential binary format, UTM projection

The Imagery Subset

Subsets were created using the Version 1.0 reconnaissance images. The subsets cover 5 km by 5 km and are 5000 by 5000 pixels, or about 20 MB. The area of the original image covered by each subset was selected to avoid clouds, unless the Des Groseillers was obvious in the image, in which case the subset was selected to include the ship. In many images, the large-scale texture of the ice is not homogenous on a 5 km scale. Therefore while an effort was made to choose representative subsets, the subsets are not necessarily samples of average surface conditions. The subsets are in GeoTIFF format, can be obtained by FTP, and are listed in the Metadata Table.

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Metadata Table

NSIDC archives the SHEBA imagery indicated Table 2. If you wish to obtain full-sized images, which are listed in the left column, use the Image Order Form. Thumbnails of these images are available by clicking on the image date. Subsets of some of the images in .tif format are available to download by FTP.
 

Table 2. Available SHEBA Imagery with Dates, Locations, and Size
Image Date (links to thumbnail of (x) size) Download Image Subset (no subset available if blank) *Geographical position of northwest and southeast corners of full-sized image (degrees minutes decimal-seconds) Pixel Size (m) Time (UTC) Sun azimuth angle, to nearest degree Sun elevation angle, to nearest degree *Ship location
NW Longitude NW Latitude SE Longitude SE Latitude Longitude (dec. deg.) Latitude (dec. deg.)
97AUG25_v1 (96K) 97aug25 142 26 24.84 W 74 53 44.66 N 141 34 24.59 W 74 45 21.14 N 1.005640 4:45 292 5
97AUG28_v1 (60K) 97aug28 143 47 14.09 W 74 59 59.02 N 143 37 48.91 W 74 53 43.68 N 1.003200 5:00 293 4
97AUG29_v1 (96K) 97aug29 142 43 10.01 W 75 11 53.91 N 142 12 28.56 W 74 59 44.81 N 1.115500 1:30 245 16
97AUG31_v1 (88K) 97aug31 143 03 57.90 W 75 11 25.53 N 142 17 24.36 W 75 02 40.34 N 1.027709 2:30 255 13
97SEP07_v1 (72K) 97sep07 143 42 06.26 W 75 02 35.25 N 143 11 02.73 W 75 00 17.41 N 1.012000 20:45 169 21
97SEP08_v1 (72K) 97sep08 142 53 55.23 W 75 00 49.98 N 142 25 43.31 W 74 47 44.84 N 1.000000 2:15 253 10
97SEP13_v1 (48K) 97sep13 143 46 18.34 W 74 52 49.43 N 142 57 47.72 W 74 49 10.63 N 1.046500 20:00 155 17
97SEP14_v1 (40K) 97sep14 143 37 25.48 W 75 05 11.08 N 142 57 54.09 W 75 01 10.38 N 1.069500 20:15 161 17
97SEP29_v1 (55K) 97sep29 143 35 04.93 W 75 12 09.79 N 142 26 46.64 W 75 06 35.83 N 1.127000 19:30 152 11
97OCT07_v1 (60K) 97oct07 143 34 52.85 W 75 12 40.71 N 143 07 30.41 W 75 00 39.01 N 1.046500 20:45 173 9
97OCT08_v1 (62K) 97oct08 143 12 49.10 W 75 12 12.41 N 142 21 56.31 W 75 04 39.23 N 1.046500 0:00 222 5
97OCT10_v1 (52K) 97oct10 144 41 49.13 W 75 23 56.82 N 143 54 05.15 W 75 17 28.35 N 1.104000 20:30 165 7
97OCT12_v1 (40K) 97oct12 144 28 03.65 W 75 25 03.05 N 144 05 23.66 W 75 15 08.68 N 1.000400 22:45 200 6
98MAY07_v1 (60K) 98may07 165 21 03.88 W 76 01 35.57 N 164 27 56.43 W 75 56 20.87 N 1.069500 5:45 284 14 165.162 W 76.062 N
98MAY16_v1 (59K) 165 07 32.84 W 76 10 01.64 N 164 47 47.16 W 75 59 48.26 N 1.226659 22:30 171 33 165.438 W 76.306 N
98MAY17_v1 (46K) 98may17 165 55 20.83 W 76 18 01.16 N 164 46 45.65 W 76 14 54.07 N 1.000100 2:30 239 27 165.788 W 76.326 N
98MAY20_v1 (28K) 98may20 166 36 06.38 W 76 26 33.00 N 165 38 25.38 W 76 20 53.00 N 1.292474 6:00 290 16 166.608 W 76.339 N
98MAY26_v1 (26K) 98may26 168 17 14.23 W 76 35 55.98 N 166 59 12.19 W 76 29 19.70 N 1.058000 21:30 154 34 167.482 W 76.465 N
98JUN02_v1 (36K) 98jun02 168 02 06.40 W 76 56 47.70 N 166 31 38.52 W 76 49 58.98 N 1.150000 21:00 146 33 167.504 W 76.799 N
98JUN04_v1 (36K) 98jun04 167 41 38.38 W 76 56 58.42 N 167 31 06.90 W 76 39 10.39 N 1.001000 9:30 337 10 167.516 W 76.852 N
98JUN06_v1 (32K) 98jun06 168 09 14.47 W 76 47 18.75 N 167 17 49.04 W 76 40 36.23 N 1.138500 1:30 217 34 167.076 W 76.932 N
98JUN09_v1 (32K) 98jun09 167 01 27.77 W 76 56 06.43 N 166 50 53.68 W 76 44 20.33 N 1.000000 9:45 341 11 166.426 W 76.92 N
98JUN10_v1 (68K) 98jun10 167 10 29.75 W 76 56 08.33 N 166 16 39.65 W 76 49 40.43 N 1.156291 1:15 217 34 166.212 W 76.873 N
98JUN17_v1 (52K) 98jun17 167 09 50.67 W 77 21 19.02 N 166 16 07.38 W 77 16 56.06 N 1.176243 22:00 159 36 166.458 W 77.283 N
98JUN18_v1 (36K) 98jun18 166 46 16.36 W 77 31 00.20 N 165 15 45.63 W 77 29 48.20 N 1.030296 2:00 226 33 166.504 W 77.392 N
98JUN22_v1 (44K) 98jun22 167 09 02.60 W 77 29 42.04 N 165 48 39.36 W 77 27 22.80 N 1.000000 22:15 165 36 167.118 W 77.673 N
98JUN24_v1 (56K) 98jun24 167 17 39.91 W 77 29 29.31 N 165 46 08.69 W 77 23 59.39 N 1.000500 4:00 261 26 167.761 W 77.732 N
98JUN25_v1 (48K) 98jun25 168 16 42.08 W 77 46 20.92 N 167 31 15.90 W 77 41 15.27 N 1.092500 3:45 253 28 167.995 W 77.722 N
98JUN26_v1 (27K) 98jun26 168 31 56.07 W 77 42 35.21 N 167 00 08.85 W 77 36 29.06 N 1.023500 3:15 247 29 168.022 W 77.726 N
98JUN27_v1 (40K) 168 41 11.59 W 77 46 57.83 N 166 56 32.07 W 77 41 37.82 N 1.069500 2:00 227 32 167.961 W 77.779 N
98JUL08_v1 (32K) 167 08 58.53 W 78 05 05.02 N 165 39 34.70 W 78 04 04.21 N 1.002000 23:15 180 34 166.408 W 78.088 N
98JUL11_v1 (35K) 167 21 33.02 W 78 06 58.73 N 166 13 38.16 W 77 58 05.04 N 1.138500 5:30 278 21 166.066 W 78.108 N
98JUL12_v1 (16K) 167 02 51.39 W 78 07 53.42 N 165 31 31.65 W 78 06 53.17 N 1.000500 23:00 179 34 166.227 W 78.09 N
98JUL20_v1 (15K) 167 05 57.19 W 78 14 42.79 N 165 12 55.26 W 78 13 41.94 N 1.001100 22:45 173 32 165.994 W 78.261 N
98JUL21_v1 (64K) 98jul21 166 24 32.31 W 78 15 14.37 N 165 45 02.61 W 78 06 45.33 N 1.115500 2:30 235 28 165.806 W 78.302 N
98JUL22_v1 (33K) 166 09 38.41 W 78 21 04.88 N 165 09 37.94 W 78 11 43.37 N 1.115500 3:00 242 26 165.546 W 78.341 N
98JUL28_v1 (39K) 165 25 04.50 W 78 33 48.15 N 164 26 59.59 W 78 25 32.25 N 1.192170 3:30 248 24 164.552 W 78.567 N
98AUG01_v1 (21K) 162 48 59.38 W 78 21 27.10 N 161 05 29.40 W 78 17 50.38 N 1.188007 22:00 168 29 161.419 W 78.324 N
98AUG13_v1 (26K) 159 43 15.27 W 78 54 10.58 N 158 10 31.73 W 78 51 21.14 N 1.000500 22:00 168 25 158.747 W 78.856 N
98AUG15_v1 (55K) 159 32 44.68 W 78 38 38.27 N 158 47 50.61 W 78 23 24.37 N 1.081000 5:45 287 11 158.537 W 78.837 N
98AUG16_v1 (55K) 159 32 20.06 W 79 01 42.62 N 158 47 38.28 W 78 47 42.74 N 1.046500 7:45 317 6 159.114 W 78.765 N
98AUG19_v1 (49K) 158 56 28.33 W 78 42 57.68 N 158 02 32.37 W 78 34 06.75 N 1.190400 5:30 288 10 158.235 W 78.961 N
98AUG23_v1 (38K) 160 16 49.15 W 79 30 14.76 N 159 13 44.42 W 79 22 17.71 N 1.127000 5:30 287 9 158.699 W 79.451 N
98AUG27_v1 (52K) 98aug27 159 54 00.91 W 79 29 29.35 N 158 09 01.50 W 79 25 23.16 N 1.092500 21:00 154 20 159.985 W 79.585 N
98AUG30_v1 (32K) 98aug30 161 12 55.31 W 79 45 16.96 N 161 01 27.11 W 79 23 52.81 N 1.000000 1:30 224 17 160.066 W 79.554 N
98SEP04_v1 (48K) 98sep04 161 14 12.13 W 79 32 39.90 N 158 46 35.02 W 79 27 12.23 N 1.003300 5:15 282 5 160.191 W 79.704 N
98SEP05_v1 (28K) 98sep05 161 15 50.93 W 79 46 31.39 N 160 15 12.45 W 79 42 41.40 N 1.001000 2:30 239 12 160.863 W 79.733 N
98SEP08_v1 (36K) 160 33 35.72 W 79 36 19.33 N 160 14 52.52 W 79 20 10.15 N 1.001100 3:30 255 9 161.664 W 79.692 N
98SEP09_v1 (56K) 98sep09 160 56 02.30 W 79 32 37.66 N 160 27 24.96 W 79 21 34.70 N 1.023500 1:30 222 13 161.839 W 79.665 N
98SEP12_v1 (60K) 163 08 51.08 W 79 36 31.86 N 162 01 02.18 W 79 30 52.66 N 1.046500 1:00 213 13 161.963 W 79.571 N
98SEP15_v1 (52K) 162 03 14.44 W 79 36 41.79 N 160 56 37.86 W 79 31 07.66 N 1.046500 2:00 230 10 161.67 W 79.638 N
98SEP16_v1 (48K) 98sep16 161 35 43.97 W 79 45 13.78 N 160 50 49.19 W 79 41 51.15 N 1.000500 3:15 251 6 162.04 W 79.689 N
98SEP22_v1 (48K) 98sep22 164 30 06.78 W 80 09 01.70 N 162 31 36.11 W 80 03 15.61 N 1.035000 21:00 153 9 164.858 W 80.277 N
98SEP23_v1 (56K) 165 45 13.64 W 80 27 16.19 N 165 14 54.65 W 80 14 22.78 N 1.115500 1:45 224 7 165.356 W 80.338 N
98SEP24_v1 (56K) 98sep24 166 02 15.00 W 80 09 07.06 N 164 41 02.15 W 80 04 20.73 N 1.000000 2:15 230 6 165.65 W 80.356 N
98SEP28_v1 (28K) 166 49 00.12 W 80 15 40.47 N 165 52 17.66 W 80 11 15.28 N 1.000000 2:00 228 5
98OCT03_v1 (36K) 166 23 22.87 W 80 21 14.36 N 165 58 02.93 W 80 00 16.64 N 1.081000 23:15 186 5


Last Updated on 6/24/02

* The geographical position of the image corner points was determined by the image processing software and satellite system parameters. Position errors of unknown magnitude exist, because images were not georectified with ground control points. The ship positions were interpolated to the nearest half hour, and were provided by the University of Washington. Not all images contain the ship.

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Spatial and Temporal Coverage

The approximate spatial bounding box for these data are the following. See Table 2 for specific locations of each image.

Northernmost Latitude: 80° N
Southernmost Latitude: 70° N
Easternmost Longitude: 130° W
Westernmost Longitude: 170° W

SHEBA Ship Track
Figure 4. Track of the Icebraker Des Grseillers's geographic position during SHEBA.

The data span 25 August 1997 through 03 October 1998.

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Software and Tools

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Access to SHEBA Reconnaissance Imagery Version 1.0 is unrestricted but users must fill out the Order Form to receive access information. The Order Form allows users to request one to three full-sized images for staging on our FTP site. If you need more than three images, we will ship those to you on DVD. NSIDC requests that users provide a summary of purpose stating how the data will be used. Submitting the Order Form automatically registers you as a user. Registered users will automatically receive release notes via e-mail containing notification of changes or additions to the data set. Note, the Imagery Subsets can be obtained by FTP without submitting the Order Form. Links to these can be found in Table 2 second column.

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References and Related Publications

Contacts and Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments: 

The following organizations played major roles in making these data available:

National Science Foundation 
United States Geological Survey 
Department of Central Intelligence Environmental Committee 
Earth Satellite Corporation

Funding for work done by NSIDC was provided by the Naval Research Laboratory (contract no. N00014-96-C-6017, F. Fetterer, PI) and the ARCSS Data Coordination Center (National Science Foundation Grant No. OPP-9321416 and Grant No. OPP-9726988, Roger Barry, PI). This data set is distributed through the NOAA program at NSIDC. The NOAA program receives financial support from NOAA NESDIS in cooperation with the National Geophysical Data Center.

Document Information

Document Creation Date

2000

No technical references available for this data set.
No FAQs or How Tos available for this data set.

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