This data set contains precipitation data originally recorded in log books at 65 Russian coastal and island meteorological stations, and later digitized at the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), St. Petersburg, Russia, under the direction of Vladimir Radionov. Records from most stations begin in 1940 and contain daily precipitation amounts in mm.
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Daily Precipitation Sums at Coastal and Island Russian Arctic Stations, 1940-1990, Version 1
|Data Contributor(s):||Vladimir Radionov, Ye. Aleksandrov, P. Svyashchennikov, Florence Fetterer|
|Metadata XML:||View Metadata Record|
As a condition of using these data, you must cite the use of this data set using the following citation. For more information, see our Use and Copyright Web page.Radionov, V. F., Y. I. Aleksandrov, P. N. Svyashchennikov, and F. Fetterer. 2004. Daily Precipitation Sums at Coastal and Island Russian Arctic Stations, 1940-1990, Version 1. [Indicate subset used]. Boulder, Colorado USA. NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5JS9NCS. [Date Accessed].
This data set contains precipitation data originally recorded in log books at 65 Russian coastal and island meteorological stations, and later digitized at the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), St. Petersburg, Russia, under the direction of Vladimir Radionov. Records from most stations begin in 1940. Instrumentation was generally a rain gauge with Nipher shield until the early 1950s (for most stations), when the Tretyakov precipitation gauge replaced earlier instrumentation. Data have not been adjusted for gauge type or wind bias. Observers corrected the data from 1967-1990 for wetting loss as they recorded the station data.
These data are provided as part of an ongoing effort to fill gaps in the precipitation record available to the arctic research community. While data from some of these 65 stations are available from other sources (see Overlap and Comparison with Other Collections), most are unique. The location of these stations along the Arctic coastline makes them a particularly valuable record of meteorology at the land/sea boundary.
Detailed Data Description
Table 1 contains station information including the year of the beginning of record and the date on which the Tretyakov gauge was installed. Included as well is information on the station from a listing of World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations. WMO official station names and positions may vary slightly from the names of stations and positions provided by AARI. They are included here for the convenience of users who might wish to cross reference these stations with WMO station lists.
The data files are in ASCII text format.
The data are available as ASCII text files with the following naming format:
|D||Identifies this as a data file|
|XXXXX||five-digit station identification number. See Table 1 for a list.|
|_formatted||Indicates this was formatted at NSIDC (see the Data Processing section)|
|.dat||Extension identifying this as an ASCII file|
Example file names:
The data files range in size from 92-304 KB.
The following sample data shows a segment of the D21931_formatted.dat file.
# Name: JUBILEJNAJA (KAZACHIE) # Precipitation dayly sum (mm) # WMO (synoptic) station number: 21931 # Latitude degrees and minutes north: 70 45 # Longitude degrees and minutes (0-360): 136 13 # Missing observations are coded as: 999.9 # 1965-01-01 0.0 1965-01-02 0.0 1965-01-03 0.6 1965-01-04 0.3 1965-01-05 0.0 1965-01-06 0.0 1965-01-07 0.0 1965-01-08 0.0 1965-01-09 0.0 1965-01-10 0.0 1965-01-11 0.4 1965-01-12 888.8 1965-01-13 0.2 1965-01-14 0.0 1965-01-15 0.0 1965-01-16 0.0 1965-01-17 0.1 1965-01-18 0.0 1965-01-19 0.0 1965-01-20 0.8 1965-01-21 1.7 1965-01-22 2.0 1965-01-23 0.9 1965-01-24 0.0 1965-01-25 888.8 1965-01-26 0.8 1965-01-27 0.3 1965-01-28 0.2 1965-01-29 888.8 1965-01-30 0.0 1965-01-31 888.8 1965-02-01 888.8 1965-02-02 0.3 1965-02-03 888.8 1965-02-04 0.1 1965-02-05 0.4 1965-02-06 0.2 1965-02-07 888.8 1965-02-08 0.0 1965-02-09 0.0 1965-02-10 0.0 1965-02-11 0.0 1965-02-12 0.0 1965-02-13 0.7 1965-02-14 888.8 1965-02-15 0.0
Data were collected at stations between 64° 25' N and 84° 48' N, and 36° 46' E and 170° W. Data records in this data set began in 1940 and ended in 1990.
Figure 1 shows a map with the locations of the meteorological stations.
Global Daily Climatology Network (GDCN) V1.0
The GDCN data set, available from the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), contains daily precipitation and temperature records from over 32,000 stations. Of these, 31 are the same as stations in this data set. However, the records presented here are transcriptions of hand written station logbooks, while most of the data in the GDCN for corresponding stations probably came via electronic transmission over the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) or Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) networks. The data from the GTS network are not quality controlled retrospectively. In theory, data from the station logbooks given here are more accurate. They are, however, subject to transcription errors. Appendix A documents those instances where differences appear; the logbooks transcribed for this data set are believed to be more accurate.
In addition to different values, the record length may be different for those stations that are present in both GDCN V1.0 and this data set. Another difference concerns the precision of the record: GTS precipitation is coded in full millimeters unless the amount is less than 1 millimeter, in which case tenths of millimeters are used. This will result in differences when a daily value is arrived at by summing the reports for that day.
The first of these monthly precipitation data sources is NCDC data set USSR Monthly Precipitation for 622 Stations 1891-1999 (DSI-3720). It includes all data in the NCDC Global Historical Climate Network and more, and has corrections for wind, wetting, and gauge type. The second is NSIDC data set Meteorological Data from the Russian Arctic, 1961-2000 (G02141). It includes monthly precipitation totals without corrections, with the exception of the post-1966 wetting correction. Daily Precipitation Sums at Coastal and Island Russian Arctic Stations, 1940-1990, (G02164, the data set you are viewing) has 21 stations in common with USSR Monthly Precipitation for 622 Stations, 1891-1999 and five stations in common with Meteorological Data from the Russian Arctic, 1961-2000. Note that the period of record may not be the same for differing data sources. Appendix B has details on station names, numbers, and the period of record for duplicated stations.
Other data collections
Overlap with other collections has not been assessed. These include a collection (223 stations) of daily precipitation data from the All-Russian Research Institute of Meteorological Information - World Data Center (RIHMI-WDC). This collection has some data records that begin in 1881 (though most begin in 1936) and end in 1995. The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) holds a data set of "Six- And Three-Hourly Meteorological Observations from 223 U.S.S.R. Stations."
Data Acquisition and Processing
Meteorological observations including precipitation were performed according to the Manual for Hydrometeorological Stations and Posts, Gidrometeoizdat, 1985 (translated from the Russian "Nastavlenie gidrometeorologicheskim stantsyyam i postam." Vypusk 3, chast’ 1). A standard meteorological site was 26 m by 26 m, and was located on relief typical of the area. It was more than 100 m distant from any bodies of water, and at a distance 20 times the height of any obstruction (such as trees or a building). A meteorologist measured the amount of precipitation one, two or four times every 24 hours (see the last paragraph in this section). Duration and type of precipitation were observed continuously. Amount of precipitation was measured to a precision of 0.1 mm.
Daily totals of precipitation have not been corrected for change of instrument type (Nipher shielded gauge to Tretyakov gauge), or for the effect of wind reducing or increasing the measurement (in the case of blowing snow that may enter the precipitation gauge bucket due to strong winds). Tretyakov's precipitation gauges replaced rain gauges with Nipher shields at stations on the date given in Table 1. Rain gauges with Nipher shields were replaced to reduce errors caused by undercatch in windy conditions and the blowing of solid precipitation out of the gauges during snowstorms. Nipher gauges record considerably less solid precipitation than do Tretyakov gauges. For this reason data acquired using Nipher shield gauges cannot be used with data acquired using Tretyakov gauges without adjustments to the data record. This correction, "K1," is typically applied to monthly totals using coefficients derived for individual stations. However, for arctic sites with strong winds in winter, the variance in the ratio of old and new gauge measurements was high and the coefficients were not published (Groisman and Rankova 2001).
Beginning in 1966, precipitation observations were corrected for wetting by adding 0.2 mm to each non-zero precipitation measurement before entering into the log book, even though the correction actually is equal to 0.2 mm for liquid and mixed precipitation and 0.1 mm for solid precipitation for each individual measurement. In 1967, the correction was changed to differentiate between solid and liquid/mixed precipitation, by reducing the correction for solid precipitation to 0.1 mm. These corrected values were summed to obtain the daily precipitation given in this data set. This wetting correction accounted for systematic moisture losses due to moisture remaining on the sides and bottom of the precipitation gauge bucket when precipitation was decanted to the precipitation measurement glass.
Note that the amount of precipitation added to the total by the wetting correction depends on the number of observations per day. The following table clarifies how the wetting correction was applied.
|Observations per day||1||2||4||2|
|Time zone exceptions||7th, 8th, 9th||3rd|
Data were digitized at the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg from the original station log books (“TM-1” books) and quality controlled by Ye.I. Aleksandrov and P.N. Svyashchennikov.
At NSIDC, the following steps were performed:
- Data were reformatted
- The value 888.8 was substituted for 0 or "trace" values (zeros in the data as delivered by V. Radionov indicated trace precipitation. Trace is recorded when the observer notes that precipitation has occurred in the time interval between measurements, but no precipitation is detectable when the gauge is emptied into the measuring glass.)
- The value 0.0 was substituted for blanks (blanks in the data as delivered by V. Radionov mean "zero" precipitation)
The example below shows data as they were received from AARI:
Name: VIKTORIJA IS. Precipitation daily sum (mm) WMO (synoptic) station number: 20026 Latitude degrees and minutes north: 80 09 Longitude degrees and minutes (0-360): 36 46 Missing observations are coded as: 999.9 1960 day jan feb mar apr may jun jul aug sep oct nov dec 1 .0 1.2 .2 2.4 .9 .0 2 .2 2.1 .2 .0 1.9 .5 .2 3 .0 .5 5.3 1.0 .6 .0 1.3 .0 4 .8 .2 .3 .0 3.6 .0 .0 .4 .2 5 .1 .6 .0 2.0 .3 .8 .0 6 1.3 .2 .2 .1 .6 .0 7 2.4 .0 .0 .2 8 .3 .6 1.0 .4 .2 .2 .1 9 .3 .0 1.2 .0 .6 1.3 2.5 10 1.3 1.0 .0 .9 .0 1.0 11 3.1 4.5 .0 .0 1.8 .0 .3 1.5 3.5 12 .0 .0 .2 1.1 1.1 .4 .9 13 9.1 .0 .2 6.4 .1 .4 2.6 (and so on)
A portion of the same data file reformatted and with substitutions for “trace” and “zero” precipitation by NSIDC:
# Name: VIKTORIJA IS. # Precipitation daily sum (mm) # WMO (synoptic) station number: 20026 # Latitude degrees and minutes north: 80 09 # Longitude degrees and minutes (0-360): 36 46 # Missing observations are coded as: 999.9 # 1960-01-01 888.8 1960-01-02 0.2 1960-01-03 888.8 1960-01-04 0.8 1960-01-05 0.1 1960-01-06 0.0 1960-01-07 0.0 1960-01-08 0.0 1960-01-09 0.0 1960-01-10 0.0 1960-01-11 3.1 1960-01-12 0.0 1960-01-13 9.1 1960-01-14 0.4 1960-01-15 0.3 1960-01-16 0.3 1960-01-17 0.2 1960-01-18 0.4 1960-01-19 0.5 1960-01-20 0.4 1960-01-21 0.4 1960-01-22 0.3 1960-01-23 0.0 1960-01-24 0.0 1960-01-25 0.0 1960-01-26 0.0 1960-01-27 0.0 1960-01-28 0.0 1960-01-29 0.0 1960-01-30 0.0 1960-01-31 0.0 1960-02-01 0.0 1960-02-02 2.1 1960-02-03 0.5 1960-02-04 0.0 (and so on)
Data digitized from logbooks are subject to transcription errors. These data have been assessed by comparing with data from the GDCN (see Overlap and Comparison with Other Collections), yet some errors may have gone undetected.
Measuring arctic precipitation accurately is difficult. Users of these data should first become familiar with error sources inherent in all arctic precipitation measurements. We strongly suggest consulting Groisman and Rankova (2001) and references contained therein, and the documentation on gridded precipitation fields in Arctic Climatology Project (2000) for an introduction to precipitation measurement issues. Groisman and Rankova (2001) have information on adjusting the raw precipitation measurements in this data set so that pre- and post-1966 values are homogeneous.
References and Related Publications
Contacts and Acknowledgments
V.F. Radionov, Ye.I. Aleksandrov, and P.N. Svyashchennikov
Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute
38 Bering Str., 199397
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309-0449
The work of the AARI team was funded in part by a grant from INTAS project # 01-0077 SCCONE. NSIDC’s Bruce Raup received support from the NOAA Arctic Research Office SEARCH program for his work documenting overlap with other collections.
We are grateful to Dr. Hermann Mächel of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre, Offenbach am Main, Germany, who assisted in quality control of this data set by checking values against those in the GDCN. His generous contribution of time and expertise has resulted in an improved data product.
The NOAA team (F. Fetterer, L. Ballagh, K. Webster, and J. Kovarik) prepared this data product for publication at NSIDC. This work was supported by funding from NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service and the National Geophysical Data Center.
F. Fetterer and K. Webster prepared this document based on information provided by V. Radionov and on documentation of related NSIDC precipitation products.
Document Creation Date