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Data Set ID:
G02164

Daily Precipitation Sums at Coastal and Island Russian Arctic Stations, 1940-1990, Version 1

This data set contains precipitation data originally recorded in log books at 65 Russian coastal and island meteorological stations, and later digitized at the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), St. Petersburg, Russia, under the direction of Vladimir Radionov. Records from most stations begin in 1940 and contain daily precipitation amounts in mm.

Geographic Coverage

Parameter(s):
  • Precipitation > Precipitation Amount
Spatial Coverage:
  • N: 84.78, S: 64.41, E: 170.16, W: 36.76

Spatial Resolution:
  • Varies
Temporal Coverage:
  • 1 January 1940 to 31 December 1990
Temporal Resolution: Varies
Data Format(s):
  • ASCII Text
Platform(s) GROUND STATIONS
Sensor(s): RAIN GAUGES
Version: V1
Data Contributor(s): Vladimir Radionov, Ye. Aleksandrov, P. Svyashchennikov, Florence Fetterer
Data Citation

As a condition of using these data, you must cite the use of this data set using the following citation. For more information, see our Use and Copyright Web page.

Radionov, V. F., Y. I. Aleksandrov, P. N. Svyashchennikov, and F. Fetterer. 2004. Daily Precipitation Sums at Coastal and Island Russian Arctic Stations, 1940-1990, Version 1. [Indicate subset used]. Boulder, Colorado USA. NSIDC: National Snow and Ice Data Center. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5JS9NCS. [Date Accessed].

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Overview

This data set contains precipitation data originally recorded in log books at 65 Russian coastal and island meteorological stations, and later digitized at the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), St. Petersburg, Russia, under the direction of Vladimir Radionov. Records from most stations begin in 1940. Instrumentation was generally a rain gauge with Nipher shield until the early 1950s (for most stations), when the Tretyakov precipitation gauge replaced earlier instrumentation. Data have not been adjusted for gauge type or wind bias. Observers corrected the data from 1967-1990 for wetting loss as they recorded the station data.

These data are provided as part of an ongoing effort to fill gaps in the precipitation record available to the arctic research community. While data from some of these 65 stations are available from other sources (see Overlap and Comparison with Other Collections), most are unique. The location of these stations along the Arctic coastline makes them a particularly valuable record of meteorology at the land/sea boundary.

Detailed Data Description

Station List

Table 1 contains station information including the year of the beginning of record and the date on which the Tretyakov gauge was installed. Included as well is information on the station from a listing of World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations. WMO official station names and positions may vary slightly from the names of stations and positions provided by AARI. They are included here for the convenience of users who might wish to cross reference these stations with WMO station lists.

Table 1: Station Information. The last four columns include the WMO station information.
Line Number Station Number Station Name Latitude Deg N Min N Longitude Deg E Min E HSL (station elevation in meters) Beginning of record Date, installation of Tretyakov’s gauge (DD.MM.YYYY) WMO Station Name WMO Latitude (Deg-Min) WMO Longitude (Deg-Min) WMO Elevation (meters)
1 20026 VIKTORIJA IS. 80 9 36 46 8 1959 10.01.1960 Viktoriya Island 80-10N 036-45E 9
2 20034 NAGURSKAYA 80 49 47 38 15 1952 30.06.1952 No WMO information found
3 20046 KRENKELJA 80 37 58 3 20 1958 01.01.1958 Polargmo Im. E. T. Krenkelja 80-37N 058-03E 20
4 20049 RUDOLFA IS. 84 48 57 58 51 1940 21.09.1951 Tikhaya Bay 80-22N 052-55E 46
5 20069 VIZE IS. 79 30 76 59 10 1945 20.04.1953 Ostrov Vize 79-30N 076-59E 10
6 20087 GOLOMJANNYY IS. 79 33 90 37 7 1954 14.06.1954 Ostrov Golomjannyj 79-33N 090-37E 8
7 20199 MALYY TAYMIR IS. 78 8 106 40 12 1941 01.08.1953 Malyy Taymir Island 78-08N 107-12E 12
8 20274 UEDINENIYA IS. 77 30 82 14 22 1940 20.09.1951 Ostrov Uedinenija 77-30N 082-12E 23
9 20289 RUSSKIY IS. 77 10 96 26 9 1940 08.09.1954 Russkiy Island 77-11N 096-35E 9
10 20291 SOLNECHNAJA BUKHTA 78 12 103 16 30 1951 23.06.1953 Solnechnaya Bay 78-14N 103-07E 30
11 20292 CAPE CHELUSKIN 77 43 104 17 13 1940 01.10.1952 Gmo Im. E. K. Fedorova 77-43N 104-18E 13
12 20294 GEYBERGA IS. 77 36 101 31 6 1952 01.03.1953 No WMO information found
13 20353 CAPE JELANIJA 76 57 63 34 8 1940 20.06.1951 Mys Zelanija 76-57N 068-33E 8
14 20357 RUSSKAJA HAVAN 76 11 63 34 18 1940 01.01.1951 Russkaya Gavan 76-11N 063-34E 9
15 20388 PRAVDY IS. 76 16 94 17 10 1940 01.08.1953 Pravdy Island 76-17N 094-44E 10
16 20476 CAPE STERLEGOVA 75 25 88 54 10 1940 31.08.1951 Cape Sterlegova 75-24N 088-47E 10
17 20667 POPOVA 73 20 70 2 4 1940 01.03.1954 Im. M. V. Popova 73-20N 070-03E 6
18 20674 DIKSON IS. 73 30 80 14 42 1940 01.11.1952 Ostrov Dikson 73-30N 080-24E 47
19 20696 KOSISTYY 73 40 109 44 20 1940 26.10.1954 No WMO information found
20 20744 MALYE KARMAKULY 72 23 52 44 20 1940 31.07.1953 Malye Karmakuly 72-22N 052-42E 16
21 20766 LESKINA 72 21 79 33 10 1940 18.10.1954 Leskino 72-20N 079-30E 10
22 20856 CAPE HARASAVEY 71 8 66 49 10 1953 01.10.1953 Cape Kharasovoy 71-24N 067-38E 18
23 20864 TAMBEY 71 30 71 50 8 1940 01.09.1953 Tambey 71-29N 071-49E 8
24 20871 SOPOCHNAJA KARGA 71 52 82 42 4 1940 09.09.1954 Sopochnaya Karga 71-54N 082-43E 2
25 20891 HATANGA 71 59 102 28 30 1940 01.07.1953 Hatanga 71-59N 102-28E 33
26 20946 BOLVANSKIY NOS 70 27 59 4 13 1947 27.03.1952 Cape Bolvanskij 70-27N 059-04E 13
27 20963 GYDOJAMA 70 53 78 28 8 1940 01.01.1953 Gyda 70-53N 078-30E 8
28 20964 TADIBEJAHA 70 22 74 3 4 1950 01.11.1952 No WMO information found
29 20967 SEJAHA 70 13 72 36 16 1940 01.09.1954 Sejaha 70-10N 072-31E 16
30 21301 ANDREJA IS. 76 49 110 45 6 1942 03.10.1952 Andreya Island 76-48N 110-50E 6
31 21358 JOHOVA IS. 76 9 152 50 14 1956 01.06.1956 No WMO information found
32 21405 PRONCHICHEVOY BUKHTA 75 32 113 31 15 1940 23.04.1954 No WMO information found
33 21432 KOTELNYY IS. 68 41 158 43 10 1940 01.12.1952 Ostrov Kotel'Nyj 76-00N 137-52E 10
34 21504 PREOBRAJENIYA IS. 74 0.4 112 0.56 24 1940 01.03.1953 Ostrov Preobrazenija 74-40N 112-56E 57
35 21535 SANNIKOVA STRAIT 74 30 139 0 16 1940 28.02.1953 No WMO information found
36 21541 ZEMLJA BUNGE 74 53 142 7 10 1954 01.10.1953 No WMO information found
37 21611 TERPJAY-TUMSA 73 32 118 40 12 1961 01.01.1961 No WMO information found
38 21636 CAPE KIGILYAKH 73 0.2 139 0.55 26 1940 06.05.1951 No WMO information found
39 21647 CAPE SHALAUROVA 73 11 143 56 14 1940 10.10.1953 Mys Shalaurova 73-11N 143-14E 22
40 21729 CAPE BUORKHAYA 71 57 132 43 24 1942 01.09.1953 No WMO information found
41 21824 TIKSI BUKHTA 71 35 128 55 6 1940 01.07.1953 Tiksi 71-35N 128-55E 8
42 21825 MUOSTAH IS. 71 33 130 1 3 1940 04.10.1953 Mostakh Island 71-32N 129-55E 3
43 21931 JUBILEJNAJA (KAZACHIE) 70 45 136 13 25 1940 17.05.1955 Jubilejnaja 70-46N 136-13E 22
44 21946 CHOKURDAH 70 37 147 53 48 1945 17.09.1954 Chokurdah 70-37N 147-53E 61
45 21955 ALAZEJA 70 40 153 44 2 1947 15.09.1952 No WMO information found
46 21965 CHETYREHSTOLBOVOY 70 38 162 24 32 1940 13.08.1953 Ostrov Chetyreh-Stolbovoy 70-38N 162-29E
47 21978 VALKARKAY 70 5 170 56 4 1941 05.11.1952 No WMO information found
48 21982 VRANGELJA IS. 70 58 181 31 2 1940 20.09.1953 Ostrov Vrangelja 70-59N 178-29W 3
49 23022 AMDERMA 69 46 61 41 52 1940 01.03.1953 Amderma 69-45N 061-42E 53
50 23024 BELYY NOS 69 29 60 20 19 1943 15.08.1953 Cape Bely 69-29N 060-20E 6
51 23032 MARRESALE 69 43 66 49 24 1940 01.11.1952 Maresale 69-43N 066-48E 25
52 23146 CAPE KAMENNYY 68 28 73 36 5 1950 01.09.1953 No WMO information found
53 23242 NOVYY PORT 67 42 72 54 12 1975 01.06.1975 Novy Port 67-41N 072-52E 12
54 25034 BUHTA AMBARCHIK 69 34 162 18 26 1940 25.11.1955 Buhta Ambarcik 69-37N 162-18E
55 25042 AYON 69 56 167 58 16 1940 11.08.1954 Ajon Island 69-50N 168-40E 16
56 25044 RAUCHUA 69 29 166 33 6 1944 01.09.1953 No WMO information found
57 25051 PEVEK 69 42 170 20 5 1940 01.09.1953 No WMO information found
58 25062 CAPE BILLINGSA 69 53 176 5 4 1940 01.10.1954 No WMO information found
59 25173 CAPE SHMIDTA 68 55 180 31 3 1940 01.11.1952 Mys Shmidta 68-54N 179-22W 7
60 25282 CAPE VANKAREM 67 51 184 22 5 1940 23.08.1954 No WMO information found
61 25392 CAPE NETTEN 66 56 188 10 20 1943 01.09.1949 No WMO information found
62 25399 CAPE UELEN 66 10 190 10 6 1940 01.03.1953 Mys Uelen 66-10N 169-50W 7
63 25594 BUKHTA PROVIDENIA 64 26 186 46 9 1940 01.03.1953 Buhta Providenja 64-25N 173-14W 3
64 25595 CHAPLINO 64 25 187 45 5 1940 15.08.1954 No WMO information found
65 99999 CAPE STOLBOVOY 73 18 53 46 6 1940 01.09.1953 No WMO information found
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Format

The data files are in ASCII text format.

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File Naming Convention

The data are available as ASCII text files with the following naming format:

DXXXXX_formatted.dat

where

Table 2. File Naming Convention
Variable Description
D Identifies this as a data file
XXXXX five-digit station identification number. See Table 1 for a list.
_formatted Indicates this was formatted at NSIDC (see the Data Processing section)
.dat Extension identifying this as an ASCII file

Example file names: D21931_formatted.dat and D25594_formatted.dat.

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File Size

The data files range in size from 92-304 KB.

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Sample Data Record

The following sample data shows a segment of the D21931_formatted.dat file.

# Name:   JUBILEJNAJA (KAZACHIE)
# Precipitation dayly sum (mm)
# WMO (synoptic) station number: 21931
# Latitude degrees and minutes north:      70 45
# Longitude degrees and minutes (0-360):  136 13
# Missing observations are coded as: 999.9
# 
1965-01-01 0.0
1965-01-02 0.0
1965-01-03 0.6
1965-01-04 0.3
1965-01-05 0.0
1965-01-06 0.0
1965-01-07 0.0
1965-01-08 0.0
1965-01-09 0.0
1965-01-10 0.0
1965-01-11 0.4
1965-01-12 888.8
1965-01-13 0.2
1965-01-14 0.0
1965-01-15 0.0
1965-01-16 0.0
1965-01-17 0.1
1965-01-18 0.0
1965-01-19 0.0
1965-01-20 0.8
1965-01-21 1.7
1965-01-22 2.0
1965-01-23 0.9
1965-01-24 0.0
1965-01-25 888.8
1965-01-26 0.8
1965-01-27 0.3
1965-01-28 0.2
1965-01-29 888.8
1965-01-30 0.0
1965-01-31 888.8
1965-02-01 888.8
1965-02-02 0.3
1965-02-03 888.8
1965-02-04 0.1
1965-02-05 0.4
1965-02-06 0.2
1965-02-07 888.8
1965-02-08 0.0
1965-02-09 0.0
1965-02-10 0.0
1965-02-11 0.0
1965-02-12 0.0
1965-02-13 0.7
1965-02-14 888.8
1965-02-15 0.0
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Spatial and Temporal Coverage and Resolution

Data were collected at stations between 64° 25' N and 84° 48' N, and 36° 46' E and 170° W. Data records in this data set began in 1940 and ended in 1990.

Figure 1 shows a map with the locations of the meteorological stations.

Map of Station Locations
Figure 1. Map of Station Locations. Click for larger view.

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Overlap and Comparison with Other Collections (current as of date of publication)

Global Daily Climatology Network (GDCN) V1.0

The GDCN data set, available from the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), contains daily precipitation and temperature records from over 32,000 stations. Of these, 31 are the same as stations in this data set. However, the records presented here are transcriptions of hand written station logbooks, while most of the data in the GDCN for corresponding stations probably came via electronic transmission over the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) or Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) networks. The data from the GTS network are not quality controlled retrospectively. In theory, data from the station logbooks given here are more accurate. They are, however, subject to transcription errors. Appendix A documents those instances where differences appear; the logbooks transcribed for this data set are believed to be more accurate.

In addition to different values, the record length may be different for those stations that are present in both GDCN V1.0 and this data set. Another difference concerns the precision of the record: GTS precipitation is coded in full millimeters unless the amount is less than 1 millimeter, in which case tenths of millimeters are used. This will result in differences when a daily value is arrived at by summing the reports for that day.

USSR Monthly Precipitation for 622 Stations 1891-1999
Meteorological Data from the Russian Arctic, 1961-2000

The first of these monthly precipitation data sources is NCDC data set USSR Monthly Precipitation for 622 Stations 1891-1999 (DSI-3720). It includes all data in the NCDC Global Historical Climate Network and more, and has corrections for wind, wetting, and gauge type. The second is NSIDC data set Meteorological Data from the Russian Arctic, 1961-2000 (G02141). It includes monthly precipitation totals without corrections, with the exception of the post-1966 wetting correction. Daily Precipitation Sums at Coastal and Island Russian Arctic Stations, 1940-1990, (G02164, the data set you are viewing) has 21 stations in common with USSR Monthly Precipitation for 622 Stations, 1891-1999 and five stations in common with Meteorological Data from the Russian Arctic, 1961-2000. Note that the period of record may not be the same for differing data sources. Appendix B has details on station names, numbers, and the period of record for duplicated stations.

Other data collections

Overlap with other collections has not been assessed. These include a collection (223 stations) of daily precipitation data from the All-Russian Research Institute of Meteorological Information - World Data Center (RIHMI-WDC). This collection has some data records that begin in 1881 (though most begin in 1936) and end in 1995. The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) holds a data set of "Six- And Three-Hourly Meteorological Observations from 223 U.S.S.R. Stations."

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Data Acquisition and Processing

Data Acquisition Methods

Meteorological observations including precipitation were performed according to the Manual for Hydrometeorological Stations and Posts, Gidrometeoizdat, 1985 (translated from the Russian "Nastavlenie gidrometeorologicheskim stantsyyam i postam." Vypusk 3, chast’ 1). A standard meteorological site was 26 m by 26 m, and was located on relief typical of the area. It was more than 100 m distant from any bodies of water, and at a distance 20 times the height of any obstruction (such as trees or a building). A meteorologist measured the amount of precipitation one, two or four times every 24 hours (see the last paragraph in this section). Duration and type of precipitation were observed continuously. Amount of precipitation was measured to a precision of 0.1 mm.

Daily totals of precipitation have not been corrected for change of instrument type (Nipher shielded gauge to Tretyakov gauge), or for the effect of wind reducing or increasing the measurement (in the case of blowing snow that may enter the precipitation gauge bucket due to strong winds). Tretyakov's precipitation gauges replaced rain gauges with Nipher shields at stations on the date given in Table 1. Rain gauges with Nipher shields were replaced to reduce errors caused by undercatch in windy conditions and the blowing of solid precipitation out of the gauges during snowstorms. Nipher gauges record considerably less solid precipitation than do Tretyakov gauges. For this reason data acquired using Nipher shield gauges cannot be used with data acquired using Tretyakov gauges without adjustments to the data record. This correction, "K1," is typically applied to monthly totals using coefficients derived for individual stations. However, for arctic sites with strong winds in winter, the variance in the ratio of old and new gauge measurements was high and the coefficients were not published (Groisman and Rankova 2001).

Beginning in 1966, precipitation observations were corrected for wetting by adding 0.2 mm to each non-zero precipitation measurement before entering into the log book, even though the correction actually is equal to 0.2 mm for liquid and mixed precipitation and 0.1 mm for solid precipitation for each individual measurement. In 1967, the correction was changed to differentiate between solid and liquid/mixed precipitation, by reducing the correction for solid precipitation to 0.1 mm. These corrected values were summed to obtain the daily precipitation given in this data set. This wetting correction accounted for systematic moisture losses due to moisture remaining on the sides and bottom of the precipitation gauge bucket when precipitation was decanted to the precipitation measurement glass.

Note that the amount of precipitation added to the total by the wetting correction depends on the number of observations per day. The following table clarifies how the wetting correction was applied.

Table 3: Observations per day and application of wetting correction (Groisman and Rankova 2001)
Before 1936 1936-1966 1966-1986 1986-1990
Observations per day 1 2 4 2
Time zone exceptions 7th, 8th, 9th 3rd
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Data Processing

Data were digitized at the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg from the original station log books (“TM-1” books) and quality controlled by Ye.I. Aleksandrov and P.N. Svyashchennikov.

At NSIDC, the following steps were performed:

  • Data were reformatted
  • The value 888.8 was substituted for 0 or "trace" values (zeros in the data as delivered by V. Radionov indicated trace precipitation. Trace is recorded when the observer notes that precipitation has occurred in the time interval between measurements, but no precipitation is detectable when the gauge is emptied into the measuring glass.)
  • The value 0.0 was substituted for blanks (blanks in the data as delivered by V. Radionov mean "zero" precipitation)

The example below shows data as they were received from AARI:

Name:    VIKTORIJA IS.                                            
Precipitation daily sum (mm)                                   
WMO (synoptic) station number: 20026                           
Latitude degrees and minutes north:    80 09
Longitude degrees and minutes (0-360): 36 46
Missing observations are coded as: 999.9                       
                                                               
1960 
day jan  feb  mar  apr  may  jun  jul  aug  sep  oct  nov  dec 
 1   .0       1.2                            .2  2.4   .9   .0
 2   .2  2.1             .2   .0  1.9             .5   .2     
 3   .0   .5  5.3       1.0   .6   .0            1.3   .0     
 4   .8        .2             .3   .0  3.6   .0   .0   .4   .2
 5   .1                  .6   .0       2.0   .3   .8   .0     
 6            1.3             .2        .2   .1   .6        .0
 7            2.4                       .0        .0   .2     
 8             .3   .6  1.0   .4        .2        .2   .1     
 9                  .3   .0  1.2        .0        .6  1.3  2.5
10                 1.3  1.0   .0        .9        .0  1.0     
11  3.1            4.5   .0   .0       1.8   .0   .3  1.5  3.5
12                       .0   .0        .2  1.1  1.1   .4   .9
13  9.1             .0                  .2  6.4   .1   .4  2.6

(and so on)

A portion of the same data file reformatted and with substitutions for “trace” and “zero” precipitation by NSIDC:

# Name:    VIKTORIJA IS.
# Precipitation daily sum (mm)
# WMO (synoptic) station number: 20026
# Latitude degrees and minutes north:    80 09
# Longitude degrees and minutes (0-360): 36 46
# Missing observations are coded as: 999.9
#
1960-01-01 888.8
1960-01-02 0.2
1960-01-03 888.8
1960-01-04 0.8
1960-01-05 0.1
1960-01-06 0.0
1960-01-07 0.0
1960-01-08 0.0
1960-01-09 0.0
1960-01-10 0.0
1960-01-11 3.1
1960-01-12 0.0
1960-01-13 9.1
1960-01-14 0.4
1960-01-15 0.3
1960-01-16 0.3
1960-01-17 0.2
1960-01-18 0.4
1960-01-19 0.5
1960-01-20 0.4
1960-01-21 0.4
1960-01-22 0.3
1960-01-23 0.0
1960-01-24 0.0
1960-01-25 0.0
1960-01-26 0.0
1960-01-27 0.0
1960-01-28 0.0
1960-01-29 0.0
1960-01-30 0.0
1960-01-31 0.0
1960-02-01 0.0
1960-02-02 2.1
1960-02-03 0.5
1960-02-04 0.0


(and so on)
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Quality Assessment

Data digitized from logbooks are subject to transcription errors. These data have been assessed by comparing with data from the GDCN (see Overlap and Comparison with Other Collections), yet some errors may have gone undetected.

Measuring arctic precipitation accurately is difficult. Users of these data should first become familiar with error sources inherent in all arctic precipitation measurements. We strongly suggest consulting Groisman and Rankova (2001) and references contained therein, and the documentation on gridded precipitation fields in Arctic Climatology Project (2000) for an introduction to precipitation measurement issues. Groisman and Rankova (2001) have information on adjusting the raw precipitation measurements in this data set so that pre- and post-1966 values are homogeneous.

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References and Related Publications

Contacts and Acknowledgments

V.F. Radionov, Ye.I. Aleksandrov, and P.N. Svyashchennikov
Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute
38 Bering Str., 199397
St. Petersburg
Russia

Florence Fetterer
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309-0449
USA

Acknowledgments: 

The work of the AARI team was funded in part by a grant from INTAS project # 01-0077 SCCONE. NSIDC’s Bruce Raup received support from the NOAA Arctic Research Office SEARCH program for his work documenting overlap with other collections.

We are grateful to Dr. Hermann Mächel of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre, Offenbach am Main, Germany, who assisted in quality control of this data set by checking values against those in the GDCN. His generous contribution of time and expertise has resulted in an improved data product.

The NOAA team (F. Fetterer, L. Ballagh, K. Webster, and J. Kovarik) prepared this data product for publication at NSIDC. This work was supported by funding from NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service and the National Geophysical Data Center.

Document Information

Document Authors

F. Fetterer and K. Webster prepared this document based on information provided by V. Radionov and on documentation of related NSIDC precipitation products.

Document Creation Date

February 2005

No technical references available for this data set.
No FAQs or How Tos available for this data set.

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