This data set contains water depth, temperature, specific gravity, salinity, and density measurements from the North Polar Basin and the Barents Sea, gathered by Nansen and crew on the Norwegian North Polar Expedition from 1893-1896.
Norwegian researcher and explorer Fridtjof Nansen originated the idea of using a ship, beset in ice and drifting, as a research station after pieces of wreckage from the USS Jeannette, crushed in the ice of the Laptev Sea, washed up on the southwest coast of Greenland after three years. To Nansen, this event suggested the existence of a trans-Arctic current. The Fram, designed specifically for the expedition by naval architect Colin Archer, drifted from a starting point in ice north of the New Siberian Islands to Svalbard in what was later named the Transpolar Drift Stream.
Data are available as a Microsoft Excel file via FTP.
National Snow and Ice Data Center. 2002. Norwegian north polar expedition 1893-1896: oceanographic data. Compiled by Fridtjof Nansen. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N57H1GGG
|data format||Microsoft Excel|
|spatial coverage||The ship's track ranged from 85.87 N to 69.42 N, and 137.83 E to 12.43 E|
|temporal coverage and resolution||Data were collected daily between July 22, 1893 and April 15, 1896|
|file size||72 Kb|
|parameter(s)||Variables measured were water temperature, density, salinity, depth, and specific gravity|
|Metadata access||View metadata|
|Data access||Data are available via FTP|
Fridtjof Nansen, 1861-1930
Explorer, Oceanographer, Ambassador to Norway, (1906-1908), 1922 Nobel Peace Prize recipient
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NSIDC staff keyed the data in this data set from the print version of the final values table (pages 243-256) in The Norwegian North Polar Expedition, 1893-1896, Scientific Results, Volume III, reprint. The Microsoft Excel file exactly replicates the data in the table from the publication, except the Excel file includes corrections made from Nansen's Errata and Addenda (pages VI-VII).
Meteorological data from the Nansen expedition can be found in the Enviromental Working Group (EWG) Arctic Meteorology and Climate Atlas.
The data are in Microsoft Excel format.
The Norwegian North Polar Expedition, onboard the Fram, drifted from a starting point in ice north of the New Siberian Islands at approximately 78°50N, 0°00E to the west coast of Svalbard, at approximately 78°00N, 20°00E.
The data span ranges from July 1893 to April 1896.
Data were collected daily.
Variables measured were water temperature, density, salinity, depth, and specific gravity.
|1||1893||July 22||70 43||39 20||0||5.80||1.02593||34.10||1.02678|
Column Titles Key:
Column 1: Distinguishing Number
Column 2: Year
Column 3: Month and Day
Column 4: Latitude Degrees (N) and Minutes
Column 5: Longitude Degrees (E) and Minutes
Column 6: Depth (meters)
Column 7: Temperature (°C)
Column 8: Specific Gravity
Column 9: Salinity (0/00)
Column 10: Density
Data are available via FTP.
Temperature - Various types of thermometers were used to measure temperatures in water samples collected with Pettersson's insulated water bottles with non-conducting water jackets.
Specific gravity and salinity - floating hydrometers of constant weight and Tornoe's Apparatus were used to measure specific gravity and salinity in water samples collected with Pettersson's insulated water bottles with non-conducting water jackets, Ekman's insulated water bottle, and Blessing's water bottle. Please refer to The Norwegian North Polar Expedition, 1893-1896, Scientific Results, Volume III, reprint (see the References and Related Publications section of this document) for more specific information on instruments and sampling procedures.
Density and specific gravity values were calculated.
The Fram. Photo by James S. Aber, Dept. Earth Science, Emporia State University. Copyright James S. Aber.
Arctic Climatology Project. 2000. Environmental Working Group Arctic Meteorology and Climate Atlas. Edited by F. Fetterer and V. Radionov. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. CD-ROM.
Fridtjof, Nansen, ed. 1902. The Norwegian North Polar Expedition, 1893-1896, Scientific Results, Volume III. Christiania: Jacob Dybwad; London, New York, Bombay: Longmans, Green, and Co.; Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus.
Fridtjof, Nansen, ed. 1902. The Norwegian North Polar Expedition, 1893-1896, Volumes I-VI. Christiania: Jacob Dybwad; London, New York, Bombay: Longmans, Green, and Co.; Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus.
Fridtjof, Nansen, ed. 1969. The Norwegian North Polar Expedition, 1893-1896, Scientific Results, Volume III. New York, NY: Greenwood Press. Reprint.
1 October 2002