Radiation transmittance (ratio of transmitted to incident radiation) through clear ice, refrozen slush ice and brash ice, from ice surface to ice-water interface in the 400 to 600 nanometer range (photosynthetically active range), was measured at two freshwater lakes (Silver Lake, near Ann Arbor, Michigan, and Whitefish Point on Lake Superior). Data available include surface and under-ice sensor readings, date and time of observation, ice thickness, water depth, distance of under-ice sensor from ice bottom surface, and site number/location. The data are relevant to studying the survival of plants and animals in freshwater lakes with ice or ice and snow cover. These data were collected by the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL), Ann Arbor, MI.
Access to the GLERL Radiation Transfer Through Freshwater Ice data set is unrestricted, but users are encouraged to register for the data. Registered users will receive e-mail notification about any product changes.
Bolsenga, S.J. 1995. GLERL radiation transfer through freshwater ice. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5QN64N6
The following example shows how to cite the use of this data set in a publication. For more information, see our Use and Copyright Web page.
|Spatial coverage and resolution||Silver Lake (46 degrees, 46 minutes North, 83 degrees, 43 minutes West) and Lake Superior (Whitefish Point, 46 degrees, 46 minutes North, 84 degrees, 57 minutes West).|
|Temporal coverage and resolution||1978|
|File size||The total data set is 86.8 KB.|
Solar radiation, transmittance, ice thickness
|Metadata access||View metadata|
|Data access||Data are available via FTP.|
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Radiation transfer through clear ice, refrozen slush, and brash ice, from the ice surface to the ice-water interface in the 400-700 nanometer range was measured at two freshwater lake sites: Silver Lake (46 degrees, 46 minutes North, 83 degrees, 43 minutes West) and Lake Superior (Whitefish Point, 46 degrees, 46 minutes North, 84 degrees, 57 minutes West). Silicon photodiodes were used to measure transmittance.
The ASCII files containing the data have the following structure:
|Surface sensor reading (nanometers)||1- 4|
|Surface scale||5- 8|
|Under-ice sensor reading (nanometers)||9-12|
|Under-ice sensor scale||13-16|
|Ice thickness (centimeters)||27-40|
|Water depth (centimeters)
(99=depth not measured; -1 = very deep;
other negative value = estimated depth)
|Under-ice sensor depth (centimeters)||45-48|
.3551000.315 300 930122276 24 64 0 1 SILVER LAKE .3601000.970 100 934122276 24 64 0 1 SILVER LAKE .3681000.330 300 935122276 24 64 0 1 SILVER LAKE .3711000.750 100 937122276 24 64 -45 1 SILVER LAKE .5601000.390 3001055122276 24 64 0 1 SILVER LAKE
The total data set is 86.8 KB.
Data are available via FTP.
Assel, R. A. Great Lakes weekly ice cover statistics. NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-133. NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 27 pp. (2005). ftp://ftp.glerl.noaa.gov/publications/tech_reports/glerl-133/
Assel, R. A. Computerized National Weather Service Great Lakes ice reports for winter seasons 1899-1970. NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-130. NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 31 pp. (2004). ftp://ftp.glerl.noaa.gov/publications/tech_reports/glerl-130/
Assel, R. A. A Laurentian Great Lakes ice cover climatology. Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Eastern Snow Conference, Portland, Maine, June 9-11, 2004. 2 pp. (2004). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/2004/20040027.pdf
Assel, R. A., F. H. Quinn, and C. E. Sellinger. Hydro-climatic factors of the recent drop in Laurentian Great Lakes water levels. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 85(8):1143-1151 (2004). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/2004/20040017.pdf
Assel, R. A., S. Drobot, and T. E. Croley, II. Improving 30-day Great Lakes ice cover outlooks. Journal of Hydrometeorology 5(4):713-717 (2004). http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/2004/20040016.pdf
Assel, R. A., S. Drobot, and T. E. CROLEY, II. Improving monthly Great Lakes ice cover outlooks. NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-129. NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 22 pp. (2004). ftp://ftp.glerl.noaa.gov/publications/tech_reports/glerl-129/
Assel, R. A. Lake Erie ice cover climatology -- basin averaged ice cover: winters 1898-2002. NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-128. NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 15 pp. (2004). ftp://ftp.glerl.noaa.gov/publications/tech_reports/glerl-128/
Bolsenga, S.J. (1978) Photosynthetically active radiation transfer through ice. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-18, 48 pages. NTIS order number PB299-463.
This data set is maintained at NSIDC with support from the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center.
In July, 2006, this document was reformatted. F. Fetterer reviewed this document.