The National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center (NSIDC/WDC) for Glaciology in Boulder, Colorado houses many photographic prints of glaciers, taken both from the air and from the ground. These photographs constitute an important historical record, as well as a data collection of interest to those studying the response of glaciers to climate change. NSIDC is partnering with the NOAA Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) and the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) to digitize selected photographs and make them available through a searchable interface. To date, more than 12,000 photographs have been digitized and comprise the Glacier Photograph Collection. Most of the photographs are of glaciers in the Rocky Mountains, the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and Greenland. However, the collection does include a smaller number of photos of glaciers in Europe and South America. In March 2006, we began our special collection of Repeat Photography of Glaciers. Updates to the Glacier Photograph Collection are ongoing, and the photos are available online via a searchable interface.
The following example shows how to cite the use of this data set in a publication. For more information, see our Use and Copyright Web page.
To cite the NOAA/NSIDC Glacier Photograph Collection, please use the following citation:
NSIDC/WDC for Glaciology, Boulder, compiler. 2002, updated 2009. Glacier Photograph Collection. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology. doi: 10.7265/N5/NSIDC-GPC-2009-12.
To cite individual photographs taken from the Glacier Photograph Collection, please use the following citation:
Photographer's name. Year photograph was taken. Name of glacier: From the Glacier Photograph Collection. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology. Digital media.
Gregg, Raymond. 1938. Tyndall Glacier: From the Glacier Photograph Collection. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology. Digital media.
|Data format||Digital images: JPEG (.jpg) and TIFF (.tif) format
Metadata files: ASCII text (.txt)
|Spatial coverage and resolution||Most of the glaciers are in the Rocky Mountains, the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and Greenland. The collection includes a smaller number of glaciers photos for Europe and South America.|
|Temporal coverage and resolution||Photos were taken between the 1880s to present.|
|File size||Thumbnail images (JPEG): 2 KB to 48 KB
Reference images (JPEG): 15 KB to 2 MB
High-resolution archive images (JPEG and/or TIFF): 29 KB to 320 MB
ASCII text metadata files: ~4 KB
|Product Web site||Glacier Photograph Collection|
|Metadata access||View metadata|
|Data access||Data are available via the Glacier Photograph Collection Search & Order Interface.|
Allaina M. Wallace, Librarian and Analog Data Archivist, National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology, Boulder, Colorado USA.
NSIDC User Services
National Snow and Ice Data Center
CIRES, 449 UCB
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0449 USA
phone: +1 303.492.6199
fax: +1 303.492.2468
form: Contact NSIDC User Services
Glaciers are sensitive to the temperature and precipitation fluctuations accompanying climate change. Many of the world's glaciers are retreating in response to warmer temperatures which is often marked by an obvious change in glacier terminus location. For an example, see Mountain Glacier Fluctuations: Changes in terminus location and mass balance on the NSIDC State of the Cryosphere Web page. Because of this sensitivity to climate change, historical photograph collections of glaciers are therefore an important climate record.
NSIDC's Analog Archives Collection houses more than 20,000 glacier photograph prints as well as approximately 100,000 imaged on microfilm. Research into the history of this collection is ongoing. William O. Field compiled one subset of this collection, roughly 5,000 prints titled the American Geophysical Union/American Geographical Society Collection. Field was the head of the Department of Exploration and Field Research at the American Geographical Society from 1947 until he retired in 1969. Field took many of the photographs and assembled them for the American Geophysical Union Research Committee. It was because of this collection that in 1957 the International Geophysical Year (IGY) committee awarded the WDC for Glaciology to Field and named him the first director. He maintained the collection until the WDC was moved to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) in Tacoma, WA and ultimately to Boulder, CO in 1976. The photographs are primarily of Alaskan glaciers but also include the Pacific Northwest (U.S. and Canada), the Rocky Mountains, and Europe.
NSIDCís collection of prints is fragile. To view the collection, users must travel to NSIDC; or NSIDC staff may search the print collection for users. Because of this, the climatologically and historically significant analog collection had relatively few users. To help rectify this situation, NSIDC released the NOAA/NSIDC Glacier Photograph Collection in December 2002 in partnership with NOAA NGDC. This subset of our analog collection was digitized under the NOAA CDMP, a partnership between the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and private industry to image and key the paper and microfilm records and to make them available on the Web to members of the climate and environmental research community. Images in the database are retrievable by glacier name, photographer name, date, country, state, and geographic coordinates.
In March 2006, a number of repeat photographs, also known as glacier pairs, were added through the contribution of a USGS investigator. In October 2006, 215 photographs from the Harry F. Reid collection were added to the Glacier Photograph Collection. In August 2007, over 1,200 photographs of Greenland glaciers, donated by the U.S. Coast Guard, were added to the collection. In January 2008, 13 Rocky Mountain National Park Glacier Survey Reports and the accompanying 264 glacier photographs were added. Seventy-nine terrestrial photographs taken by Fred D. Ayres in Peru during the 1950s were added to the collection in February 2008. These prints are part of NSIDCís Historic Glacier Photograph Collection. In March 2008, a new special collection was added to show glaciers from the IGY (DAHLI IGY glacier photographs).
In June 2008, over 360 Arapaho Glacier images were added to the collection. These images are part of the H. A. Waldrop Arapaho Glacier Thesis Research Papers. Waldrop collected photographs of Arapaho Glacier taken in the early 1900s by Junius Henderson (first curator of the CU Museum). Using repeat photography techniques, Waldrop recreated Hendersonís photographs for his thesis research completed in 1962.
Also in June 2008, the first batch of aerial photographs taken by Austin Post and members of the USGS Ice and Climate Project (ICP) were added to the collection. This collection is being digitized from a 35 mm roll of microfilm and consists of approximately 13,600 images. Research is ongoing to determine which photographs were taken by Post and which were taken by members of the ICP for USGS. The vast majority of the images were taken by Post and are thus described. Updates will be made as needed. For more information about the ICP collection contact the GeoData Center of the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks where the original negatives are housed.
NSIDC hopes to continue working with the CDMP program, with USGS investigators, and other data users to add more digital images in the future.
The photographs are primarily of glaciers in Alaska, Greenland, the Pacific Northwest (U.S. and Canada), and the Rocky Mountains, along with some from Europe and South America. The latitude and longitude reported for each photograph is the location of the glacier, not the point from which the photograph was taken.
The earliest glacier photograph in the Glacier Photograph Collection is from 1883, and the most recent is from 2005. Some photographs are of the same glacier and comprise a special Repeat Photograph Collection.
Figure 1 shows a map with the location of glaciers in this data set as
of July 2009.
|Figure 1. Map Showing Location of Glaciers in this Data Set as of July 2009. Click for a high-res version.|
Images are available in JPEG (.jpg) and TIFF (.tif) format and are provided in three sizes: thumbnail, reference, and high-resolution archive. The thumbnail images are the smallest of the three. They have a width of 150 pixels and are available in JPEG format. The reference images are a medium sized image with a width of 640 pixels that provide a better view of the glacier before ordering the high-resolution version. They are available in JPEG format. The archive images, which are the high-resolution version of the images, have a width of 1800 to 6600 pixels, depending on the size of the original print. They are available in JPEG and/or TIFF format. For certain photographs, archive images are only available in JPEG format. The associated metadata files that accompany a photograph are in ASCII text (.txt) format.
Figure 2 is an example of the search results generated from a search of the Glacier Photograph Collection search interface for the Agassiz Glacier. In the interface, you can order a high-resolution image by checking the box next to thumbnail of the glacier photograph and then clicking on Proceed to order, or you can view metadata along with the reference image by clicking on the thumbnail image.
|Figure 2. Example of Results Generated From a Search of the Glacier Photograph Collection|
The following metadata and the image in Figure 3 are displayed if, for example, you click the Agassiz Glacier (agassiz1913081501) thumbnail in the search results shown in Figure 2, above. Note: This metadata is provided as an ASCII text file when you order the high-resolution archive image.
You selected the following glacier id: agassiz1913081501.
Photographer Name : Alden, William Clinton
Glacier Name : Agassiz Glacier
Publisher : National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology, Boulder
Date of Original Media : 15 Aug 1913
State/Province : MT
Country : USA
Coordinates - Latitude : 48.93280
Coordinates - Longitude: -114.15860
Original Media : Photographic print. Imaged.
Description : 1 photoprint; 13.75 x 7.75 cm. (5 3/8 x 3 in.)
Keywords : Terminus, Firn line
Source : U.S. Geological Survey
Rights : Photograph held by the National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology, Boulder. May be used freely if properly cited.
High Resolution Image Size : 17022 (KB)
|Figure 3. Agassiz Glacier Photographed on 15 August 1913 by Alden|
Most Glacier Photograph Collection Glacier IDs are assigned at NSIDC based on the name, year, month, day of the photograph, and an index number. In the example above, the date of the Agassiz Glacier photograph (that is, the date written on the print) is 15 August 1913, and it is the first in a possible series of Agassiz Glacier photographs with this date, resulting in the glacier image file ID of agassiz1913081501. If the day or month that the photograph was taken is not known, 00 fills that position. Note that all three digital image files of this glacier, the thumbnail, the reference image, and the archive image, have the same file name. Users should note that photographs without glaciers have a Glacier ID starting with noglacier and a glacier name of NoGlacier. Images without glaciers are provided as a reference for historical context. For example, some of the NoGlacier images are photographs of the surrounding area of the glacier. Unidentified images where the name of the glacier is not known are named Unknown in the database. The associated ASCII text metadata file has the same filename as the photograph but with a .txt file extension.
For the Reid collection, the Glacier IDs are assigned differently. The format is similar to charpentier1892_353, which refers to the glacier name, the year the photograph was taken, and the number assigned to the photograph by Reid.
For the Greenland collection, the Glacier IDs are also assigned differently from the rest of the collection. These are based on the glacier name, followed by GI followed by a box number and then by the order of the slide within each box. For example, the glacier identifier of hayesGI01_02 refers to Hayes Glacier in Box 1 and it is the second slide from that box.
The Glacier IDs for the National Park Service (NPS) Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) Glacier Survey Reports are assigned based on the RMNP report year and the year of the glacier photograph. When searching in the Glacier Photograph Collection, note that the first eight digits of the Glacier ID, provided in the search results, are coded to match the photographs in the original report. The Glacier ID will start with a four-digit park code, then a four-digit year. For example, the glacier identifier of rmnp1939_andrews190901 refers to the RMNP report from 1939 of Andrews Glacier which was taken in 1909. The 01 refers to a unique identifier and is used with every photograph in this special collection.
The Glacier IDs for the Austin Post and USGS ICP aerial photographs are assigned based on the original photograph print number. For example, the glacier identifier of USGS92V1_053 references that USGS was the supporting project; the year the photograph was taken (1992), that the image was a vertical camera angle (V), and that it was Image 53 on Roll 1.
The Glacier Photograph Collection image files range in size as follows:
Thumbnail images (JPEG): 2 KB to 48 KB
Reference images (JPEG): 15 KB to 2 MB
Archive high-resolution images (JPEG and/or TIFF): 29 KB to 320 MB
ASCII text metadata file: ~4 KB
NSIDC works with the CDMP contractor to check the quality of image files. Most image files of digitized photographs were checked for correct file name, proper digitization, and proper image size at NSIDC and were digitized again by the contractor if deemed necessary.
A variable degree of uncertainty surrounds the metadata for each image. See The Digital Collection section of this document for more information.
Most latitudes and longitudes were determined in 1981 when NSIDC staff created an Index of Metadata for some of the NSIDC analog glacier photograph collection. When creating the online database, if no location information existed for the individual photos, NSIDC staff researched published literature or referred to the Geographic Names Information System for latitudes and longitudes.
Some photographs have more than one glacier and some degree of subjective judgment was necessary to document metadata for these photographs. In these cases, NSIDC staff referred to the original labels associated with the photographs.
NSIDC added Other Glaciers and Notes fields to the metadata database in 2005. The Other Glaciers field may be blank even if other glaciers are in the image. This field is filled only if and when users send this information to NSIDC. The Notes field was added to capture additional information that glaciologists using the database may be able to supply about individual images or to record errors or uncertainties in metadata if they are known. In addition, the Notes field may contain descriptive information that NSIDC has collected either from the photographs, photographers, or photo collector. For example, the information for the photographs taken by Reid came from Field.
The Glacier Photograph Collection refers to glaciers in the mountain ranges along the Alaskan/Canadian border as occurring in both Alaska and Canada.
NSIDC houses many thousands of glacier photographs as prints and on microfiche. The largest single collection of print images at NSIDC is the American Geophysical Union/American Geographical Society Collection, donated to NSIDC/WDC for Glaciology by William O. Field. Field indexed the photos by region and drainage system. For example, he indexed Alaskan glacier photos starting in the southeast corner of the state, continuing north and west, following each drainage basin in a counterclockwise direction. This method enables photos of neighboring glaciers to be filed next to each other. This filing system is used for all of the collection. Subsequent donations are filed into this system. It is from this collection that the first photographs were selected for the online project.
The American Geophysical Union/American Geographical Society Collection that Field donated to NSIDC/WDC for Glaciology included the Harry F. Reid collection. Reid, America’s first geophysicist (Gillispie 1970 - 1980, 11:361-362), traveled to Glacier Bay, Alaska, in 1890 and 1892 in order to photograph and map the area. Collected by Field after Reid’s death in 1945, the materials include approximately 600 glass plate negatives and prints, 22 expedition notebooks, and about 1 cubic foot of manuscript materials (including drafts of Reid’s map of Glacier Bay). Also included are photographs taken during Reid’s trips to the Alps beginning in 1894 through 1901. Users should note that some of the photographs taken by Reid were of the local area and not of a glacier. The Reid photographs without glaciers were given a Glacier Name of NoGlacier in the database.
Copies of the Austin Post aerial photograph collection became a part of the WDC for Glaciology collection when the WDC was transferred to the USGS in Tacoma in 1970. This collection of photographs, the Post-Mayo-Krimmel (PMK) Collection, comprises approximately 100,000 photographs, almost all of which are only available on microfilm at NSIDC.
The Greenland photograph collection was donated to the WDC for Glaciology in the mid 1980s by Captain Ron Kollmeyer of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). Captain Kollmeyer was the lead for the Greenland Glacier Survey. More than 1,200 color slides have been digitized and are available. The photographs of western Greenland glaciers were taken between 1969 and 1980 from ground observation stations and from USCG helicopters at an altitude of between 100 and 1,000 feet.
Unfortunately, NSIDC does not have resources for storing all analog glacier photographs under archival quality conditions. As a consequence, some are in danger of deterioration. This gives urgency to our digitization work in partnership with NOAA CDMP. Allowing researchers to access high-quality digital reproductions of these fragile and rare photographs limits the need to use the original archival image and aids in the preservation of the originals.
In partnership with NOAA NGDC and HOV Services, Ltd., a CDMP corporate partner, NSIDC is digitizing selected analog photographs for online distribution. The goals of the CDMP Glacier Photograph Digitization Project are the following:
NSIDC selects images for digitizing that are held by NSIDC with
no copyright restrictions that are good quality images and that show substantial
portions of glaciers.
The original black-and-white photographic prints range in size from 2 x 3 inches
to 8.5 x 11 inches. Figure 4 shows a picture of some of our analog archive holdings.
|Figure 4. A Selection of Glacier Photograph Prints being Prepared for Shipment to the CDMP Contractor for Digitizing|
The following requirements were provided to the CDMP contractor for digitizing the photographs:
Metadata for the digitized images are compiled at NSIDC in an Excel spreadsheet that is uploaded to a Sybase database. Metadata for the initial release of about 1,000 glaciers in 2002 was derived primarily from the Glacier Photograph Collection Index, a project started in the late 1970s by NSIDC staff. This index, or inventory of glacier names with metadata for some of NSIDC's analog glacier photograph collection, is housed at NSIDC on paper and on microfiche. The metadata covers many aspects of the individual photos, including the altitude at which a photograph was taken, date, photograph number, latitude/longitude, mountain range, and drainage system. Not all of the aspects were included in the metadata.
The keyword headings used for the Index project were Terminus, Medial moraine, Terminal moraine, Lateral moraine, Firn line, All of glacier, Rock glacier, and Other. Transcribing the Index information was too labor intensive to be sustained, so NSIDC assigned keyword terms by looking at the photographs. Only glaciers in the first release of about 1,000 photographs have keywords assigned. The keyword heading for glaciers in the second release, July 2005, are blank.
NSIDC used the USGS Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) to look up geographic coordinates of most glaciers. For those glaciers that did not appear in the GNIS or when more than one entry for the same title appeared, NSIDC determined approximate coordinates by either referring to the original photos (for hand-written information from the photographer), or by doing Web-based research, including Topozone or Terraserver, to estimate coordinates near the middle of the glacier.
In some glaciers for which the Index or the GNIS did not supply geographic coordinates, the Alaska Atlas & Gazetteer (2001) or Holmes et al. (2001) provided coordinates.
As Harrison wrote in 1960, "The glacier story is always changing,
but it can be caught and preserved with the proper use of a camera." Glacier
photographs taken from the same vantage point but years apart in time often
show changes in the glacier terminus position that may be indicative of climate
forcing. (Tidewater glaciers may exhibit shorter term cycles of terminus advance
and retreat as well). These repeat photographs are of special interest
to glaciologists. The Glacier Photograph Collection contains many photographs
of the same glaciers, but relatively few repeat photographs. In 2006, Dr. Bruce
F. Molnia, a glaciologist with USGS, collected
and contributed repeat glacier photographs. He had taken many of the later ones
himself and had digitized the earlier ones from data collections. These are
identified in the Source metadata as U.S. Geological Survey (distinguished
from USGS Photo Library, which refers to USGS historic collections).
Notes and Keyword metadata are based on information from Dr. Molnia. To access
this subset, see the Search & Order interface.
Figure 5 shows an example of the glacier pairs found in this special collection.
|Figure 5. Muir Glacier Pair
Muir Glacier photographed by Field on 13 August 1941 (left) and by Bruce F. Molnia on 31 August 2004 (right). Click on the thumbnail image above for a larger version and for more information about the pair.
Lonnie G. Thompson contributed repeat photographs in July of 2007. The appropriate image credit for Lonnie Thompson's photographs reads: Lonnie G. Thompson, Byrd Polar Research Center, the Ohio State University.
In June of 2006, Matt Nolan also donated repeat photographs to this collection.
RMNP began conducting glacier surveys at the request of Francois E. Matthes in 1932. The National Park Service donated copies of the glacier survey reports to Matthes for the International Committee on Glaciers (the committee is now called the International Commission for Snow and Ice Hydrology). For a history of the committee and its subsequent transformations, see the The International Commission on Snow and Ice (ICSI) and its Precursors, 1894-1994 PDF document. Matthes later donated his collection to the WDC for Glaciology now housed at NSIDC. Glaciers included in the survey were Tyndall Glacier and Andrews Glacier. NSIDC holds reports from the years 1932-1952; these reports include 264 glacier photographs. Several of the reports combine more than one year into one report. For example, 1934 includes the two previous years. Not all of the reports contain photographs. See the File Naming Convention section of this document for information on how the files in the collection are named.
Note: Metadata in the notes field were taken from the captions associated with the photographs in the reports. To view the photographs in context, see the associated PDF file. To access the PDFs, see the Rocky Mountain National Park Glacier Survey Reports Web page. To obtain high-resolution versions of the photographs from the park reports, see the Search & Order interface.
To cite the photographs from the reports, see the section on Citing these Data. To cite the digital reports (PDF files) use the following format:
Author’s last name, first name. Year published. Title. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. URL to the PDF report at NSIDC.
Gregg, H. R. 1939. Glacier Survey, Rocky Mountain National Park. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. http://nsidc.org/data/glacier_photo/nps_reports/rmnp_report_1939.pdf.
Glaciology was one of the primary research areas studied during IGY. Taken between 1957 and 1959, the Discovery and Access of Historic Literature (DAHLI) from the International Polar Year's (IPY) IGY Glacier Photographs represent an attempt to systematically study glacier change in Alaska. These images comprise the DAHLI IGY Glacier Photograph collection. To access this collection, see the Search & Order interface. For a more general overview of the DAHLI project, visit the DAHLI IPY Web site.
This special collection was taken by astronauts on the International Space Station and the Space Shuttle Endeavor. These photos were taken between 1994 and the beginning of 2010. The photos were collected in collaboration with the The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth project. The goal is to make these photos more widely available and discoverable. To see the photos, go to the Search & Order Interface.
This special collection consists of field photographs from the McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica. While the valleys themselves are notably ice-free, a number of glaciers terminate in the valleys, some acting as outlets to the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Studies show that the majority of the glaciers in this area are receding. Glaciers were photographed in the course of geologic studies and help document the conditions of the glaciers and how they may have changed. These photos are held by the Data Conservancy at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). If you have any questions, please contact Keith Kaneda of JHU. To see the photos, go to the Search & Order Interface and search for glaciers from Antarctica.
If you are interested in contributing photographs to the NSIDC Glacier Photograph Collection, please see the Submitting Glacier Photographs Web page.
The Glacier Photograph Collection may be accessed through an online Search & Order interface. To obtain the thumbnail image, right click (PC) or Ctrl click (Mac) the thumbnail image in the search results in the Glacier Photograph Collection search interface (See Figure 2). To obtain the reference image, click on the thumbnail image in the search results of the interface to bring up a separate Web page with metadata and the reference image. To save the reference image, right click (PC) or Ctrl click (Mac) the reference image. See the Sample Data Record section of this document for an example of a reference image and its metadata. To order a high-resolution archive image along with an ASCII text file containing the metadata, check the box to the left of the thumbnail of the glacier photograph in the search results and then click Proceed to order.
The USGS Repeat Photography Project has photographs from Glacier National Park, Montana USA.
Photographs of Glacier Bay National Park glaciers and animations are available from USGS.
Repeat glacier photographs are also available from the DOUBLEXPOSURE project.
The Glaciers Online: The Big Melt Web page offers images of Swiss glaciers related to the rapid glacier recession observed during the last few years to decades.
The Glacier Photograph Collection is also available through EarthSLOT which provides 3D visualization of the world via a GIS web-based application and links to images from the Glacier Photograph Collection.
Alaska Atlas & Gazetteer. 2001. Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme.
Alaska State Library staff. January 2002. "Alaska Glacier
20 November 2002.
Andreassen, L.M., H. Elvehoy, and B. Kjollmoen. 2002. Using aerial photography to study glacier changes in Norway. Annals of Glaciology 34: 343-347.
Bird, M.L. 1984. The AGS and polar work: highlights in retrospect. Polar Times 98: 8-9.
Bentley Historic Library, University of Michigan. Digital Photographic Images Guidelines. http://bentley.umich.edu/uarphome/bestprac/imageguide.pdf, 96 KB.
Brecher, H.H. 1986. Surface velocity determination on large polar glaciers by aerial photogrammetry. Annals of Glaciology 8: 22-26.
Casassa, G., K. Smith, A. Rivera, J. Araos, M. Schnirch, and C. Schneider. 2002. Inventory of glaciers in Isla Riesco, Patagonia, Chile, based on aerial photography and satellite imagery. Annals of Glaciology 34: 373-378.
Cotton, T. 1995. "Land Reborn: A History of Administration
and Visitor Use in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Chapter II: Sightseers
http://www.nps.gov/glba/adhi/adhi2.htm. 21 November 2002.
Digital Image Rights Computator. http://www.vraweb.org/resources/ipr/dirc/index.html. Accessed 18 March 2009.
Field, W.O. 2004. With a Camera in My Hands: A Life History as Told to C. Suzanne Brown. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Press.
Field, W.O., editor. 1975. Mountain Glaciers of the Northern Hemisphere. Hanover, New Hampshire: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.
Field, W.O. 1966. Mapping glacier termini in southern Alaska, 1931-1964. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 3(5): 819-825.
Field, W.O. 1952. Glaciers - historians of climate. The Geographical Review 42(3):337-345.
Field, W.O. 1950. Glaciological research in Alaska. Alaskan Science Conference.
Gillispie, Charles C., ed. 1970 - 1980. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Vol. 11. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Harrison, A. E. 1960. Exploring Glaciers with a Camera. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club.
Hormes, A., B.U. Muller, and C. Schluchter. 2001. The Alps with little ice: evidence for eight Holocene phases of reduced glacier extent in the Central Swiss Alps. The Holocene 11(3): 255-265.
Meier, M.F., L.A. Rasmussen, R.M. Krimmel, R.W. Olsen, and D. Frank. 1985. Photogrammetric determination of surface altitude, terminus position, and ice velocity of Columbia Glacier, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1258-F.
Molnia, B.F. 2008. Glaciers of North America – Glaciers of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-K.
Tarr, R., and L. Martin. 1914. Alaskan Glacier Studies. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Veatch, F.M. 1969. Analysis of a 24-year photographic record of Nisqually Glacier, Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. Geological Survey Professional Paper 631. Washington, D.C.: USGS.
The NOAA Climate Database Modernization Program (CDPM) provided funding and programmatic oversight for digitizing the photos in the Glacier Photograph Collection. Joseph Elms of the National Climatic Data Center manages the program. The photos were digitized at CDMP Corporate Partner LASON Corporation, Beltsville, MD, under the direction of John Jacobs.
Teresa Mullins, NSIDC Librarian from October 1999 through June 2004, initiated the digitization project, wrote the statement of work with imaging requirements for digitizing prints, and compiled metadata for the first set of images digitized. She also researched NSIDC's analog collection to provide background on Field's contribution of glacier photograph prints to the WDC for Glaciology, Boulder.
NSIDC glaciologist, Dr. Richard Armstrong, assisted with selecting photographs of greatest scientific interest for digitizing and in documenting the collection.
United States Geological Survey glaciologist Dr. Bruce F. Molnia serves as an advisor to the project and is assisting with the evaluation and documentation of our analog glacier photograph collection. Dr. Molnia also contributed repeat photographs.
Allaina Wallace, NSIDC Data Archivist and Librarian, is curator of the collection. The NOAA team (Florence Fetterer, Lisa Ballagh, and Jonathan Kovarik) maintains these products at NSIDC jointly with Allaina Wallace and I-Pin Wang, Database Administrator. Lisa Ballagh developed the Repeat Photography of Glaciers interface. Metadata for the 2005 update was researched by Jason Wolfe. Metadata for subsequent updates was researched by Allaina Wallace. Quality control was provided by the Archive Management Services team led by Jonathan Kovarik. The interface to the online database was designed by Teresa Mullins and Alejandro Machado, and implemented with assistance from Ross Swick, NSIDC Systems Engineering.
This work is supported by funding from NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service and the National Geophysical Data Center.
Table 7 lists acronyms used in this document.
|CDMP||Climate Database Modernization Program|
|FTP||File Transfer Protocol|
|GNIS||Geographic Names Information System|
|ICP||Ice and Climate Project|
|NCDC||National Climatic Data Center|
|NGDC||National Geophysical Data Center|
|NOAA||National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|
|NSIDC||National Snow and Ice Data Center|
|RMNP||Rocky Mountain National Park|
|USCG||U.S. Coast Guard|
|USGS||United States Geological Survey|
|WDC||World Data Center|
This document was originally prepared by T. Mullins. It has been updated by F. Fetterer, L. Husted, J. Wolfe, L. Ballagh, D. Miller, and A. Windnagel.
13 November 2002
March 2011 - A. Windnagel added information about the new Dry Valleys collection.
June 2010 - A. Windnagel added information about the Astronaut Glacier Photo collection and the new metadata files that now accompany a photo order.
April 2010 - A. Windnagel removed the text on submitting photographs and added a link to the Web page with this information.
December 2009 - A. Windnagel updated the number of glaciers that are available.
July 2009 - A. Windnagel updated this document to reference the new search and order interface and added a glossary.
March 2008 - L. Ballagh added information about the DAHLI Special Collection and regarding the February 2008 update for 79 glaciers in Peru.
January 2008 - L. Ballagh added information about the second special collection (National Park Service reports) based on input from A. Wallace.
November 2007 - L. Ballagh changed all of the references to the repeat photography. The correct title is Repeat Photography of Glaciers.
October 2007 - L. Ballagh changed scan to digitize in several places and updated the data set title.
August 2007 - L. Ballagh added information about the Greenland collection based on input from A. Wallace.
October 2006 - L. Ballagh added documentation about the Reid collection and updated the file sizes, based on correspondence with A. Wallace, F. Fetterer and J. Kovarik.
July 2006 - L. Ballagh updated the GLIMS Glacier Database hyperlink and changed the hyperlink of the repeat photograph sample image of Muir Glacier.
March 2006 - Documentation was updated to reflect the addition of the Repeat Photography of Glaciers.
January 2006 - Noted that photos were added in January 2006.
September 2005 - F. Fetterer added the section on contributing photographs.
July 2005 - F. Fetterer revised the format, updated information, included relevant content from the PDF Glacier Photograph Collection Users Guide, and removed access to the Users Guide. A. Wallace added information on WDC's analog collection.