Note: This data set was first published on the 1998 CAPS CD.
The text for this document was taken unchanged from that CD.

See also Description of Data Files.

Seasonal Frost Depths, Midwestern USA

Frost tube data from 18 stations in the upper Midwestern USA: Minnesota, North Dakota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. The responsible agency was the St. Paul District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. These data were collected during 1971-1981 (no data for 1976/77) by cooperative observers who gathered the data for use in their spring run-off hydrologic predictions. The observers had frost tubes installed by District personnel in their back yards. The early penetration of frost at the beginning of the freezing season was not observed, but most observers picked up the record when 1 or 2" of frost had occurred. This data base, a preliminary version, was constructed by Richard K. Haugen and Glenn King from the manuscript records of the cooperative observers and is presented on the CAPS Version 1.0 CD-ROM, June 1998.

Station Locations:

North Dakota 1,Minot ,48.18,101.3,1769,38
North Dakota 2,Bottineau ,48.83,100.4,1640,38
North Dakota 5,Langdon ,48.75,98.33,1615,41
North Dakota 6,Valley City ,46.97,98.03,1210,41
Minnesota 8,Crookston ,47.80,96.62, 883,38
Minnesota 10,Morris ,45.58,95.88,1140,40
Minnesota 15,Lamberton ,44.25,95.32,1144,40
Minnesota 16,Winnebego ,43.77,94.17,1110,39
Minnesota 17,N. Mank ,44.17,94.03, 785,40
Minnesota 24,Duluth WSO ,46.83,92.18,1428,43
Minnesota 26,St. Paul ,44.98,93.08, 920,40
Minnesota 27,Rochester ,43.92,92.50,1297,
Minnesota 28,Winona ,44.05,91.63, 652,42
Wisconsin 30,Neillsville ,44.53,90.63,1045,41
Wisconsin 31,Glen Flora ,45.47,91.08,1158,41
Michigan 32,Bessemer ,46.47,90.18,1430,39
Minnesota 35,Wheaton ,45.80,96.48,1018,35
Minnesota 36,Waseca ,44.07,93.52,1153,36


21, 23 = no information
38 = clay
39 = clay/silt
40 = silt
41 = silt/sand
42 = sand

Please cite these data as follows:

Haugen, R. and King G. 1998. Seasonal frost depths, midwestern USA. In: International Permafrost Association, Data and Information Working Group, comp. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS), version 1.0. CD-ROM available from National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, Colorado: NSIDC, University of Colorado at Boulder.