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Note: This data set was first published on the 1998 CAPS CD.
The text for this document was taken unchanged from that CD.

See also Description of Data Files.

ROMANIA

GEOCRYOLOGICAL DATABASE FOR ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS

Geocryological Database for Romanian Carpathians is based on both BTS measurements (bottom temperature of winter snow cover) and on summer temperatures of springs situated at the base of rock glaciers. The former were made using digital thermometers in February and March, the latter using digital and mercury thermometers in August and September at the end of the period of estival melting.

The measurements have been made in the Detunata Mountains (D) from Apuseni Mountains and in Retezat Mountains from Southern Carpathians

(R) (Fig. 1).

The Retezat Mountains are situated in the Southern Carpathians (Transylvanian Alps), where many peaks are higher than 2500 m. Moldoveanu Peak in Fagaras Mountains is 2544 m, the maximum for the Romanian Carpathians. In Retezat Mountains, with 10% of the surface area above 2000 m, the highest point is Peleaga Peak, with 2509 m a.s.l.

Glacial cirques and valleys are fundamental geomorphic elements in the landscape of the highest area of Retezat Mountains, having originated from Pleistocene glaciers, which reached altitudes of 1050 -1100 m a.s.l. during their maximum extension. The interaction of paraglacial processes and periglacial phenomena produced a variety of periglacial forms: rocck glaciers, block fields, rock streams, talus cones and scree slopes, cryoplanation terraces and solifluction forms.

The climatic conditions specific for the high zone are cold; mean annual temperatures are below 0 deg.C above 2000 m (- 0.5 deg. C at Tarcu, 2180 m, - 2.6 deg.C at Omu, 2505 m), with an absolute minimum of -38 deg. C. The number of days with frost is 200-254, and the number of freezing-thawing cycles is more than 125, with frost being possible during the whole year. The mean annual precipitation is 1178 mm at Tarcu and 1278 mm at Omu. The thickness of the snow layer can be between 50 and 370 cm and is in function of wind; the upper limit of the forest is between 1750 and 1800 m.

Please cite these data as follows:

Urdea, P. 1998. Permafrost monitoring and prediction in Southern Carpathians, Romania. In: International Permafrost Association, Data and Information Working Group, comp. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS), version 1.0. CD-ROM available from National Snow and Ice Data Center, nsidc@kryos.colorado.edu. Boulder, Colorado: NSIDC, University of Colorado at Boulder.

RETEZAT MOUNTAINS

Permafrost occurence in the area Pietrele -Galesu (Retezat Mountains) on the basis of BTS measurements and estival temperatures of the springs situated at the base of rock glaciers front: 1- permafrost present, 2 - permafrost possible, 3 - peak, 4 - ridge, 5 - rock glaciers., 6 - rivers and lakes, 7 - BTS mesurements, 8 - spring measurement.

Site no: RRG 1

Source of data:
     Name of investigator:  dr. Petru Urdea
     Name of institute: West University of Timisoara, 
                        Dept. of Geography

Data type:
     Temperature log         X                      
     Borehole log
     Site visit description
     Other:

Location:
     Longitude: 22o 52' 29'' E
     Latitude: 45o 22' 50'' N
     UTM:

Geodetic datum: topographic map 1: 25 000, ed. 1978, Military Topographic Department 
Elevation a.s.l.:
     (m):2005 - 2050
     (feet):

Aspect (slope orientation):
     North    X
     Northeast
     East
     Southeast
     South
     Southwest
     West
     Northwest
     Complex (undulating)
     Level

Slope angle (degree): 5 - 18

Landform:
     Blanket
     Fan
     Hummock
     Inclined
     Level
     Rolling
     Ridged
     Steep
     Terraced 
     Undulating
     Veneer
     Other (specify) : rock glaciers

Material:
     Anthropogenic
     Colluvial       X
     Eolian
     Fluvial
     Lacustrine
     Alluvial
     Residual
     Morainal (till)
     Volcanic
     Marine
     Organic
     Bedrock
     Ice
     Other (specify)

Texture of material:
     Clay
     Silt
     Loam
     Coarse, gravelly     X
     Diamicton
     
Drainage:
     Very rapidly drained
     Rapidly drained
     Well drained      X
     Moderately well drained
     Imperfectly drained
     Poorly drained
     Very poorly drained

Vegetation type:
     Closed coniferous forest
     Open coniferous forest
     Deciduous forest
     Mixed deciduous and coniferous forest
     Grassland 
     Wetland (including peatland)
     Tundra, alpine     X  (with sporadic medium shrubs of Pinus mugo)
     Tundra, high shrub
     Tundra, medium shrub
     Tundra, low shrub
     Tundra, broken herb
     Unvegetated surface

Vegetation cover (%):   12

Anthropogenically disturbed site:
     Yes
     No   X

Fire history:  there were no fires

Remarks:    BTS  Results  (Rock glaciers Pietrele) 


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------
------

Site no: RRG 2

Source of data:
     Name of investigator:  dr. Petru Urdea
     Name of institute: West University of Timisoara, 
                        Dept. of Geography

Data type:
     Temperature log    X
     Borehole log
     Site visit description
     Other:

Location:
     Longitude: 22o 52' 52'' N
     Latitude: 45o 22' 02'' E
     UTM:

Geodetic datum: topographic map 1: 25 000, ed. 1978, Military Topographic Department

Elevation a.s.l.: 
     (m): 2250 - 2260
     (feet):

Aspect (slope orientation):
     North    X
     Northeast
     East
     Southeast
     South
     Southwest
     West
     Northwest
     Complex (undulating)
     Level

Slope angle (degree):  7 - 20 

Landform:
     Blanket
     Fan
     Hummock
     Inclined
     Level
     Rolling
     Ridged
     Steep
     Terraced 
     Undulating
     Veneer
     Other (specify) : rock glaciers

Material:
     Anthropogenic
     Colluvial     X
     Eolian
     Fluvial
     Lacustrine
     Alluvial
     Residual
     Morainal (till)
     Volcanic
     Marine
     Organic
     Bedrock
     Ice
     Other (specify)

Texture of material:
     Clay
     Silt
     Loam
     Coarse, gravelly     X
     Diamicton
     
Drainage:
     Very rapidly drained     X
     Rapidly drained    
     Well drained
     Moderately well drained
     Imperfectly drained
     Poorly drained
     Very poorly drained

Vegetation type:
     Closed coniferous forest
     Open coniferous forest
     Deciduous forest
     Mixed deciduous and coniferous forest
     Grassland 
     Wetland (including peatland)
     Tundra, alpine   
     Tundra, high shrub
     Tundra, medium shrub
     Tundra, low shrub
     Tundra, broken herb
     Unvegetated surface    X

Vegetation cover (%):    0

Anthropogenically disturbed site:
     Yes
     No   X

Fire history:  there were no fires

Remarks:
          BTS Results (Rock glaciers Curmatura Bucurei) 


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------
-------

Site no: RS 1

Source of data:
     Name of investigator:  dr. Petru Urdea
     Name of institute: West University of Timisoara, 
                        Dept. of Geography

Data type:
     Temperature log     X
     Borehole log
     Site visit description
     Other:

Location:
     Longitude: 22o 52" 30'' E
     Latitude:  45o 22'50'' N
     UTM:

Geodetic datum: topographic map 1 : 25 000, ed. 1978, Military Topographic Department

Elevation a.s.l.:
     (m): 2005 
     (feet):

Aspect (slope orientation):
     North    X
     Northeast
     East
     Southeast
     South
     Southwest
     West
     Northwest
     Complex (undulating)
     Level

Slope angle (degree): 5

Landform:
     Blanket
     Fan
     Hummock
     Inclined
     Level
     Rolling
     Ridged
     Steep
     Terraced 
     Undulating
     Veneer
     Other (specify) : rock glaciers

Material:
     Anthropogenic
     Colluvial     X
     Eolian
     Fluvial
     Lacustrine
     Alluvial
     Residual
     Morainal (till)
     Volcanic
     Marine
     Organic
     Bedrock
     Ice
     Other (specify)

Texture of material:
     Clay
     Silt
     Loam
     Coarse, gravelly       X
     Diamicton
     
Drainage:
     Very rapidly drained
     Rapidly drained       X
     Well drained
     Moderately well drained
     Imperfectly drained
     Poorly drained
     Very poorly drained

Vegetation type:
     Closed coniferous forest
     Open coniferous forest
     Deciduous forest
     Mixed deciduous and coniferous forest
     Grassland 
     Wetland (including peatland)
     Tundra, alpine   (with sporadic shrubs of Pinus mugo)  
     Tundra, high shrub
     Tundra, medium shrub
     Tundra, low shrub
     Tundra, broken herb
     Unvegetated surface

Vegetation cover (%): 12

Anthropogenically disturbed site:
     Yes
     No   X

Fire history:  there were no fires

Remarks:


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------
-------

Site no: RS 2

Source of data:
     Name of investigator:  dr. Petru Urdea
     Name of institute: West University of Timisoara, 
                        Dept. of Geography

Data type:
     Temperature log      X
     Borehole log
     Site visit description
     Other:

Location:
     Longitude: 22o 52' 31'' E
     Latitude: 45o 22' 29'' N
     UTM:

Geodetic datum: topographic map 1 : 25 000, ed. 1978, Military Topographic DEPARTMENT

Elevation a.s.l.:
     (m): 2025 
     (feet):

Aspect (slopeorientation):
     North    X
     Northeast
     East
     Southeast
     South
     Southwest
     West
     Northwest
     Complex (undulating)
     Level

Slope angle (degree):  5

Landform:
     Blanket
     Fan
     Hummock
     Inclined
     Level
     Rolling
     Ridged
     Steep
     Terraced 
     Undulating
     Veneer
     Other (specify):  rock glaciers 

Material:
     Anthropogenic
     Colluvial     X
     Eolian
     Fluvial
     Lacustrine
     Alluvial
     Residual
     Morainal (till)
     Volcanic
     Marine
     Organic
     Bedrock
     Ice
     Other (specify)

Texture of material:
     Clay
     Silt
     Loam
     Coarse, gravelly       X
     Diamicton
     
Drainage:
     Very rapidly drained
     Rapidly drained      X 
     Well drained      
     Moderately well drained
     Imperfectly drained
     Poorly drained
     Very poorly drained

Vegetation type:
     Closed coniferous forest
     Open coniferous forest
     Deciduous forest
     Mixed deciduous and coniferous forest
     Grassland 
     Wetland (including peatland)
     Tundra, alpine      X  (with sporadic medium shrub of Pinus mugo)
     Tundra, high shrub
     Tundra, medium shrub
     Tundra, low shrub
     Tundra, broken herb
     Unvegetated surface

Vegetation cover (%):   8

Anthropogenically disturbed site:
     Yes
     No   X

Fire history:  there were no fires

Remarks:

Site no: RS 3

Source of data:
     Name of investigator:  dr. Petru Urdea
     Name of institute: West University of Timisoara, 
                        Dept. of Geography

Data type:
     Temperature log    X
     Borehole log
     Site visit description
     Other:

Location:
     Longitude: 22o 53' 39'' E
     Latitude: 45o 23' 04'' N
     UTM:

Geodetic datum: topographic map 1: 25 000, ed. 1978, Military Topographic Department

Elevation a.s.l.:
     (m): 1960
     (feet):

Aspect (slopeorientation):
     North    
     Northeast     X
     East
     Southeast
     South
     Southwest
     West
     Northwest
     Complex (undulating)
     Level

Slope angle (degree):  6

Landform:
     Blanket
     Fan
     Hummock
     Inclined
     Level
     Rolling
     Ridged
     Steep
     Terraced 
     Undulating
     Veneer
     Other (specify) : rock glaciers

Material:
     Anthropogenic
     Colluvial      X
     Eolian
     Fluvial
     Lacustrine
     Alluvial
     Residual
     Morainal (till)
     Volcanic
     Marine
     Organic
     Bedrock
     Ice
     Other (specify)

Texture of material:
     Clay
     Silt
     Loam
     Coarse, gravelly        X
     Diamicton
     
Drainage:
     Very rapidly drained
     Rapidly drained       
     Well drained         X
     Moderately well drained
     Imperfectly drained
     Poorly drained
     Very poorly drained

Vegetation type:
     Closed coniferous forest
     Open coniferous forest
     Deciduous forest
     Mixed deciduous and coniferous forest
     Grassland 
     Wetland (including peatland)
     Tundra, alpine   (with medium shrub of Pinus mugo)
     Tundra, high shrub
     Tundra, medium shrub
     Tundra, low shrub
     Tundra, broken herb
     Unvegetated surface

Vegetation cover (%):   18   

Anthropogenically disturbed site:
     Yes
     No      X

Fire history:  there were no fires

Remarks:

Site no: RS 4

Source of data:
     Name of investigator:  dr. Petru Urdea
     Name of institute: West University of Timisoara, 
                        Dept. of Geography

Data type:
     Temperature log        X
     Borehole log
     Site visit description
     Other:

Location:
     Longitude: 22o 54' 19'' E
     Latitude: 45o 22' 24'' N
     UTM:

Geodetic datum: topographic map 1 : 25 000, ed. 1978, Military Topographic Department

Elevation a.s.l.:
     (m): 2205
     (feet):

Aspect (slopeorientation):
     North      X
     Northeast
     East
     Southeast
     South
     Southwest
     West
     Northwest
     Complex (undulating)
     Level

Slope angle (degree):  11 

Landform:
     Blanket
     Fan
     Hummock
     Inclined
     Level
     Rolling
     Ridged
     Steep
     Terraced 
     Undulating
     Veneer
     Other (specify)  rock glaciers

Material:
     Anthropogenic
     Colluvial        X
     Eolian
     Fluvial
     Lacustrine
     Alluvial
     Residual
     Morainal (till)
     Volcanic
     Marine
     Organic
     Bedrock
     Ice
     Other (specify)

Texture of material:
     Clay
     Silt
     Loam
     Coarse, gravelly       X
     Diamicton
     
Drainage:
     Very rapidly drained
     Rapidly drained      X
     Well drained
     Moderately well drained
     Imperfectly drained
     Poorly drained
     Very poorly drained

Vegetation type:
     Closed coniferous forest
     Open coniferous forest
     Deciduous forest
     Mixed deciduous and coniferous forest
     Grassland 
     Wetland (including peatland)
     Tundra, alpine
     Tundra, high shrub
     Tundra, medium shrub
     Tundra, low shrub
     Tundra, broken herb
     Unvegetated surface         X

Vegetation cover (%):  0

Anthropogenically disturbed site:
     Yes
     No       X

Fire history:  there were no fires

Remarks:

Site no: RS 5

Source of data:
     Name of investigator:  dr. Petru Urdea
     Name of institute: West University of Timisoara, 
                        Dept. of Geography

Data type:
     Temperature log       X
     Borehole log
     Site visit description
     Other:

Location:
     Longitude: 22o 54' 21'' E
     Latitude: 45o 22' 25'' N
     UTM:

Geodetic datum: topographic map 1 : 25 000, ed. 1978, Military Topographic Department 

Elevation a.s.l.:
     (m): 2203
     (feet):

Aspect (slopeorientation):
     North
     Northeast
     East
     Southeast
     South
     Southwest
     West
     Northwest       X
     Complex (undulating)
     Level

Slope angle (degree):    7

Landform:
     Blanket
     Fan
     Hummock
     Inclined
     Level
     Rolling
     Ridged
     Steep
     Terraced 
     Undulating
     Veneer
     Other (specify) : rock glaciers

Material:
     Anthropogenic
     Colluvial        X
     Eolian
     Fluvial
     Lacustrine
     Alluvial
     Residual
     Morainal (till)
     Volcanic
     Marine
     Organic
     Bedrock
     Ice
     Other (specify)

Texture of material:
     Clay
     Silt
     Loam
     Coarse, gravelly        X
     Diamicton
     
Drainage:
     Very rapidly drained
     Rapidly drained       X
     Well drained
     Moderately well drained
     Imperfectly drained
     Poorly drained
     Very poorly drained

Vegetation type:
     Closed coniferous forest
     Open coniferous forest
     Deciduous forest
     Mixed deciduous and coniferous forest
     Grassland 
     Wetland (including peatland)
     Tundra, alpine
     Tundra, high shrub
     Tundra, medium shrub
     Tundra, low shrub
     Tundra, broken herb
     Unvegetated surface        X

Vegetation cover (%):  0

Anthropogenically disturbed site:
     Yes
     No        X

Fire history:  there were no fires

Remarks:

Site no: RS 6

Source of data:
     Name of investigator:  dr. Petru Urdea
     Name of institute: West University of Timisoara, 
                        Dept. of Geography

Data type:
     Temperature log       X
     Borehole log
     Site visit description
     Other:

Location:
     Longitude: 22o 54' 25'' E
     Latitude: 45o 22' 27'' N
     UTM:

Geodetic datum: topographic map 1 : 25 000, ed. 1978, Military Topographic Department

Elevation a.s.l.:
     (m): 2210
     (feet):

Aspect (slopeorientation):
     North     X
     Northeast
     East
     Southeast
     South
     Southwest
     West
     Northwest
     Complex (undulating)
     Level

Slope angle (degree):  21

Landform:
     Blanket
     Fan
     Hummock
     Inclined
     Level
     Rolling
     Ridged
     Steep
     Terraced 
     Undulating
     Veneer
     Other (specify): rock glaciers

Material:
     Anthropogenic
     Colluvial        X
     Eolian
     Fluvial
     Lacustrine
     Alluvial
     Residual
     Morainal (till)
     Volcanic
     Marine
     Organic
     Bedrock
     Ice
     Other (specify)

Texture of material:
     Clay
     Silt
     Loam
     Coarse, gravelly        X
     Diamicton
     
Drainage:
     Very rapidly drained      X
     Rapidly drained
     Well drained
     Moderately well drained
     Imperfectly drained
     Poorly drained
     Very poorly drained

Vegetation type:
     Closed coniferous forest
     Open coniferous forest
     Deciduous forest
     Mixed deciduous and coniferous forest
     Grassland 
     Wetland (including peatland)
     Tundra, alpine
     Tundra, high shrub
     Tundra, medium shrub
     Tundra, low shrub
     Tundra, broken herb
     Unvegetated surface       X

Vegetation cover (%): 0

Anthropogenically disturbed site:
     Yes
     No     X

Fire history:  there were no fires

Remarks:

Site no: RS 7

Source of data:
     Name of investigator:  dr. Petru Urdea
     Name of institute: West University of Timisoara, 
                        Dept. of Geography

Data type:
     Temperature log      X
     Borehole log
     Site visit description
     Other:

Location:
     Longitude: 22o 54' 54'' E
     Latitude: 45o 22' 48'' N 
     UTM:

Geodetic datum: topographic map 1 :25 000, ed. 1978, Military Topographic Department 

Elevation a.s.l.:
     (m): 2130
     (feet):

Aspect (slopeorientation):
     North        X
     Northeast
     East
     Southeast
     South
     Southwest
     West
     Northwest
     Complex (undulating)
     Level

Slope angle (degree):    14

Landform:
     Blanket
     Fan
     Hummock
     Inclined
     Level
     Rolling
     Ridged
     Steep
     Terraced 
     Undulating
     Veneer
     Other (specify) : rock glaciers

Material:
     Anthropogenic
     Colluvial        X
     Eolian
     Fluvial
     Lacustrine
     Alluvial
     Residual
     Morainal (till)
     Volcanic
     Marine
     Organic
     Bedrock
     Ice
     Other (specify)

Texture of material:
     Clay
     Silt
     Loam
     Coarse, gravelly         X
     Diamicton
     
Drainage:
     Very rapidly drained
     Rapidly drained         X
     Well drained
     Moderately well drained
     Imperfectly drained
     Poorly drained
     Very poorly drained

Vegetation type:
     Closed coniferous forest
     Open coniferous forest
     Deciduous forest
     Mixed deciduous and coniferous forest
     Grassland 
     Wetland (including peatland)
     Tundra, alpine  (with sporadic medium shrub of Pinus mugo)
     Tundra, high shrub
     Tundra, medium shrub
     Tundra, low shrub
     Tundra, broken herb
     Unvegetated surface

Vegetation cover (%):  9 

Anthropogenically disturbed site:
     Yes
     No      X

Fire history:  there were no fires

Remarks:

DETUNATA MOUNTAIN (APUSENI MOUNTAINS)

Fig. 3. Detunata Goala - morphological sketch map and BTS measurements: 1 - cliffs, 2 - debris, 3- rock glaciers front, 4 - peak, 5 - BTS measurements, 6 - cemented ice, 7 -dendrochronological date, 8- spring, 9. forest limit .

Site no: D 1

Source of data:
     Name of investigator:  dr. Petru Urdea
     Name of institute: West University of Timioara, 
                        Dept. of Geography

Data type:
     Temperature log       X
     Borehole log
     Site visit description
     Other:

Location:
     Longitude:  23o 12' 46'' E
     Latitude: 46o 16' N
     UTM:

Geodetic datum: topographic map 1 : 25 000, ed. 1978, Military Topographic Department

Elevation a.s.l.:
     (m): 1100 - 1125
     (feet):

Aspect (slopeorientation):
     North
     Northeast
     East
     Southeast
     South
     Southwest
     West
     Northwest        X
     Complex (undulating)
     Level

Slope angle (degree):     5 -27

Landform:
     Blanket
     Fan
     Hummock
     Inclined
     Level
     Rolling
     Ridged
     Steep
     Terraced 
     Undulating
     Veneer
     Other (specify) : rock glaciers

Material:
     Anthropogenic
     Colluvial      X
     Eolian
     Fluvial
     Lacustrine
     Alluvial
     Residual
     Morainal (till)
     Volcanic
     Marine
     Organic
     Bedrock
     Ice
     Other (specify)

Texture of material:
     Clay
     Silt
     Loam
     Coarse, gravelly       X
     Diamicton
     
Drainage:
     Very rapidly drained
     Rapidly drained
     Well drained      X
     Moderately well drained
     Imperfectly drained
     Poorly drained
     Very poorly drained

Vegetation type:
     Closed coniferous forest
     Open coniferous forest        X
     Deciduous forest
     Mixed deciduous and coniferous forest
     Grassland 
     Wetland (including peatland)
     Tundra, alpine
     Tundra, high shrub
     Tundra, medium shrub
     Tundra, low shrub
     Tundra, broken herb
     Unvegetated surface

Vegetation cover (%):    47

Anthropogenically disturbed site:
     Yes
     No       X

Fire history:  there were no fires

Remarks:

Site no: D 2

Source of data:
     Name of investigator:  dr. Petru Urdea
     Name of institute: West University of Timisoara, 
                        Dept. of Geography

Data type:
     Temperature log       X
     Borehole log
     Site visit description
     Other:

Location:
     Longitude: 23o 12'45'' E
     Latitude: 46o 16' N
     UTM:

Geodetic datum: topographic map 1: 25 000, ed. 1978, Military To[pographic Department

Elevation a.s.l.:
     (m): 990
     (feet):

Aspect (slopeorientation):
     North
     Northeast
     East
     Southeast
     South
     Southwest
     West
     Northwest         X
     Complex (undulating)
     Level

Slope angle (degree):   18

Landform:
     Blanket
     Fan
     Hummock
     Inclined
     Level
     Rolling
     Ridged
     Steep
     Terraced 
     Undulating
     Veneer
     Other (specify) : rock glaciers 

Material:
     Anthropogenic
     Colluvial        X
     Eolian
     Fluvial
     Lacustrine
     Alluvial
     Residual
     Morainal (till)
     Volcanic
     Marine
     Organic
     Bedrock
     Ice
     Other (specify)

Texture of material:
     Clay
     Silt
     Loam
     Coarse, gravelly       X
     Diamicton
     
Drainage:
     Very rapidly drained
     Rapidly drained
     Well drained       X
     Moderately well drained
     Imperfectly drained
     Poorly drained
     Very poorly drained

Vegetation type:
     Closed coniferous forest
     Open coniferous forest        X
     Deciduous forest
     Mixed deciduous and coniferous forest
     Grassland 
     Wetland (including peatland)
     Tundra, alpine
     Tundra, high shrub
     Tundra, medium shrub
     Tundra, low shrub
     Tundra, broken herb
     Unvegetated surface

Vegetation cover (%):    78

Anthropogenically disturbed site:
     Yes
     No     X

Fire history:  there were no fires

Remarks:



Fig. 2 
Fig 1 and 3