Note: This data set was first published on the 1998 CAPS CD.
The text for this document was taken unchanged from that CD.

See also Description of Data Files.

IPA GGD Data Description

Name of GGD data set: Borehole locations and permafrost depths, Alaska, USA, from U.S. Geological Survey

Principal Investigator (pre-1956):

Name: Brewer, Max C
Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Mailing Address: 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508
Telephone: 907-786-7429

Principal Investigator (1956-1989):

Name: Lachenbruch, Arthur H
Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Mailing Address: 345 Middlefield Road, MS 977, Menlo Park, CA 94025
Telephone: 650-329-4879
Email:Internet>> alachenbruch@usgs.gov

Principal Investigator (1989-present):

Name: Clow, Gary D
Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Mailing Address: Denver Federal Center, Box 25046, MS 980, Denver, CO 80225
Telephone: 303-236-5509
Fax: 303-236-5349
Email:Internet>> clow@usgs.gov

Data Compiler/Author:

Name: G.D. Clow and A.H. Lachenbruch
Organization: U.S. Geological Survey

Coverage of data set: Study location:

Arctic Alaska

Geographic extent - Describe the corners of the box representing the extent of data coverage:

Northwesternmost latitude: 71o 11' 22" N
Northwesternmost longitude: 165o 46' 00" W
Southeasternmost latitude: 62o 11' 24" N
Southeasternmost longitude: 141o 09' 00" W

Period of investigation:

1950-1988

Summary

The methods utilized by the U.S. Geological Survey to measure subsurface temperatures have evolved considerably over the years. Although some of the early measurements were obtained using thermistor strings frozen into permafrost, the vast majority of the measurements were made in fluid-filled holes using a custom temperature sensor. A typical sensor used in Alaska prior to 1989 consisted of a series-parallel network of 20 thermistors; see Sass et al. [1971] for a more detailed description. During a logging experiment, the resistance of the thermistor network was determined using a Wheatstone bridge prior to 1967. After that time, a 4-wire resistance measurement was made using a commercial 5.5-digit multimeter (DMM). Before 1984, boreholes were logged in the "incremental" or "stop-and-go" modes; the vertical spacing of the measurements was typically 3-15 m. Beginning in 1984, the depth/resistance measurements were automatically stored on magnetic tape, allowing boreholes to be logged in the "continuous" mode; the typical data spacing for the continuous temperature logs was 0.3 m (1 ft). Many of the Alaskan boreholes were re-logged several times to quantify the thermal disturbance caused by drilling the holes (see Lachenbruch and Brewer [1959]). A review of current temperature measuring techniques used by the USGS in the polar regions is given by Clow et al. [1996].

References:

Clow, G.D., R.W. Saltus, and E.D. Waddington (1996): A new high-precision borehole-temperature logging system used at GISP2, Greenland, and Taylor Dome, Antarctica, J. Glaciology, vol. 42, 576-584.

Lachenbruch, A.H. and M.C. Brewer (1959): Dissipation of the temperature effect of drilling a well in Arctic Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1083-C, 109 pp.

Sass, J.H., A.H. Lachenbruch, R.J. Munroe, G.W. Greene, and T.H. Moses, Jr. (1971): Heat flow in the Western United States, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 76, 6376-6413.

Current storage of data - Mark with "X" as many as are appropriate, or delete those that do not apply:

CD-ROM:  
Paper:
Spreadsheet(s):
Word processor file(s):
Database: X [ASCII files on USGS Climate Team Webserver: climweb.cr.usgs.gov]
Data center:
Are your data at risk of being lost?  No

Bibliography

Brewer, M.C. (1958): Some results of geothermal investigations of permafrost, Am. Geophys. Union Trans., vol. 39, 19-26.

Deming, D., J.H. Sass, A.H. Lachenbruch, and R.F. De Rito (1992): Heat flow and subsurface temperature as evidence for basin-scale groundwater flow, North Slope of Alaska, Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 104, 528-542.

Gold, L.W. and A.H. Lachenbruch (1973): Thermal conditions in permafrost - a review of North American literature. In: Permafrost: The North American Contribution to the Second International Conference, National Academy of Sciences, 3-23.

Lachenbruch, A. H. (1957): Thermal effects of the ocean on permafrost, Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 68, 1515-1530.

Lachenbruch, A. H. (1968): Permafrost, in Fairbridge, R. W., ed., Encyclopedia of Geomorphology, New York, Reinhold Book Corp., Earth Sciences Series, vol. 3, 833-839.

Lachenbruch, A. H. (1994): Permafrost, the active layer, and changing climate, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-694, 43 pp.

Lachenbruch, A.H. and M.C. Brewer (1959): Dissipation of the temperature effect of drilling a well in Arctic Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1083-C, 109 pp.

Lachenbruch, A.H., M.C. Brewer, G.W. Greene, and B.V. Marshall (1962): Temperatures in permafrost. In: Temperature - Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Reinhold Pub. Co., vol. 3, 791-803.

Lachenbruch, A.H., Cladouhos, T.T., and Saltus, R.W., 1988, Permafrost Temperature and the Changing Climate. In: "Permafrost", vol. 3, Fifth International Conference on Permafrost, Senneset, Kaare (ed.), Tapir Publishers, Trondheim, Norway, 9-17.

Lachenbruch, A.H., S.P. Galanis, Jr., and T.H. Moses, Jr. (1987): A thermal cross section for the permafrost and hydrate stability zones in the Kuparuk and Prudhoe Bay oil fields. In: Gallaway, J.P. and T.D. Hamilton, eds., Geological studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1987, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1016, 48-51.

Lachenbruch, A.H., G.W. Greene, and B.V. Marshall (1966): Permafrost and the geothermal regimes. In: Wilimovsky, N.J. and J.N. Wolfe, eds., Environment of the Cape Thompson Region, Alaska, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, USAEC Division of Technical Information, Report PNE-48b, 149-163.

Lachenbruch, A.H., and B.V. Marshall (1969): Heat flow in the Arctic, ARCTIC, vol. 22, 300-311.

Lachenbruch, A.H. and B.V. Marshall (1986): Changing climate: geothermal evidence from permafrost in the Alaskan Arctic, Science, vol. 234, 689-696.

Lachenbruch, A.H., J.H. Sass, L.A. Lawver, M.C. Brewer, G.V. Marshall, R.J. Munroe, J.P. Kennelly, Jr., S.P. Galanis, Jr., and T.H. Moses, Jr. (1982): Temperature and depth of permafrost on the arctic slope of Alaska. In: Gryc, G., ed., Geology and Exploration of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, 1974-1982, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1399, 645-656.

Lachenbruch, A.H., J.H. Sass, L.A. Lawver, and M.C. Brewer (1987): Temperature and depth of permafrost on the Alaskan arctic slope. In: Tailleur, I. and P. Weimer, eds., Alaskan North Slope Geology, Bakersfield, Calif., Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Pacific Section, vol. 2, 545-558.

Lachenbruch, A.H., J.H. Sass, B.V. Marshall, and T.H. Moses, Jr. (1982): Thermal regime of permafrost at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-535.

Lachenbruch, A.H., J.H. Sass, B.V. Marshall, and T.H. Moses, Jr. (1982): Permafrost, heat flow and the geothermal regime at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 87, 9301-9316.

Keywords - List up to ten keywords that describe the content of this data set.

borehole temperature, permafrost temperature

Please cite these data as follows:

Clow, G. and A. Lachenbruch. 1998. Borehole locations and permafrost depths, Alaska, USA. In: International Permafrost Association, Data and Information Working Group, comp. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS), version 1.0. CD-ROM available from National Snow and Ice Data Center, nsidc@kryos.colorado.edu. Boulder, Colorado: NSIDC, University of Colorado at Boulder.

SITE INFORMATION

Table 1: Permafrost depths from wells with multiple temperature logs. Elevations and pf_depth are in meters.

Well Designation Code Latitude Longitude Elev pf_depth
Atigaru ATI 70 33 22.03 N 151 43 01.85 W 2 405
Awuna AWUN 69 09 11.58 N 158 01 21.27 W 336 295
Canning River A-1 CNR 69 36 00 N 146 21 30 W 282 280
Drew Point DRP 70 52 47.14 N 153 53 59.93 W 5 324
Echooka #1 EB1 69 23 57 N 148 16 03 W 200 280
East Simpson #1 ESN 70 55 04.01 N 154 37 04.75 W 4 370
East Teshepuk ETK 70 34 11.66 N 152 56 36.90 W 2 262
West Fish Creek #1 FCK 70 19 35.99 N 152 03 38.03 W 27 268
Ikpikpuk IKP 70 27 19.68 N 154 19 52.78 W 10 347
J.W. Dalton JWD 70 55 13.79 N 153 08 15.10 W 6 411
Kugrua KAG 70 35 13.28 N 158 39 43.26 W 20 287
Kuyanak KUY 70 55 53.48 N 156 03 53.08 W 3 328
Lisburne LBN 68 29 05.44 N 155 41 35.51 W 559 295
Lupine Creek LUP 69 06 04.24 N 148 37 06.83 W 520 238
North Inigok NING 70 15 27.32 N 152 45 57.53 W 41 294
North Kalikpik NKP 70 30 33.02 N 152 22 04.17 W 5 213
BP 33-12-13 PBA 70 21 22 N 148 50 06 W 9 662
BP 04-11-13 PBB 70 19 48 N 148 50 48 W 11 640
BP 19-10-15 PBC 70 12 42 N 148 24 45 W 11 584
ARCO NPBS #1 PBE 70 22 3 N 148 31 30 W 2 604
BP 08-11-13 PBF 70 19 07 N 148 54 35 W 8 619
BP 31-11-14 PBG 70 16 06 N 148 40 24 W 10 649
Peard Bay PEA 70 42 56.32 N 159 00 02.52 W 23 310
Seabee SBE 69 22 48.52 N 152 10 31.29 W 89 309
South Meade SME 70 36 53.92 N 156 53 23.60 W 12 201
Tunalik TLK 70 12 21.45 N 161 04 09.16 W 26 296
Tulageak TUL 71 11 21.62 N 155 44 00.82 W 3 304
West Dease WDS 71 09 32.65 N 155 37 45.19 W 2 282

Table 2: Permafrost depths from wells with a single temperature log.

Well Designation Code Latitude Longitude Elev pf_depth
Confusion Creek #2 CCB 68 22 18 N 152 04 06 W 823 139 *
Prudhoe Bay C-19 CN19 70 29 24 N 149 31 24 W 6 530
Prudhoe Bay D-2A CND2 70 29 06 N 149 26 00 W 7 536
Chariot Charlie CTC 68 06 00 N 165 46 00 W - 288 *
Chariot Dog CTD 68 06 24 N 165 44 06 W - 360 *
East Bay State #1 EBS 70 18 38 N 148 18 58 W 5 627
Mobil 28243 MOB2 70 18 12 N 149 25 00 W 19 575
N. Highland State NHST 70 17 30 N 149 13 07 W 16 577
BP 11-11-1 PBH 70 20 05 N 148 46 01 W 6 637
BP 12-11-13 PBI 70 20 07 N 148 45 52 W 6 635
BP 31-10-16 PBL 70 10 56 N 148 09 29 W 14 605
BP 27-11-14 PBM 70 16 42 N 148 33 56 W 6 619
BP Kuparuk #1 PBO 69 17 48 N 150 48 48 W 189 297
Simpson Core #13 S04 70 58 58.9 N 154 39 35 W 7 319
West Sak River #11 WK11 70 21 25 N 149 59 27 W 19 470
West Sak River #14 WK14 70 17 36 N 149 57 06 W 40 464
West Sak River #17 WK17 70 26 48 N 149 43 12 W 18 550
West Sak River #101 WK101 70 17 30 N 149 30 00 W 19 519 *
West Sak State #1 WSS1 70 20 21 N 149 32 10 W 18 551

* These depths have not been corrected for the drilling disturbance due to lack of information regarding the drilling duration.